Y khoa, dược - Chapter 2: Nutrition guidelines: tools for a healthful diet

Planning How You Will Eat Calorie Control Choosing a diet that balances the calories you eat with the amount of calories your body uses Nutrient Density Amount of vitamins and minerals relative to the calories the food provides

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Chapter 2 Nutrition Guidelines: Tools for a Healthful DietLinking Nutrients, Foods, and HealthContinuum of nutritional statusOvernutritionChronic consumption of more than is necessary for good healthLinked to leading causes of deaths in the United StatesLinking Nutrients, Foods, and HealthPlanning How You Will EatAdequacyThe foods you choose to eat provide all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to support growth and maintain healthBalanceWhen the amount of energy you eat equals the amount of energy you expend in daily activities and exerciseLinking Nutrients, Foods, and HealthPlanning How You Will EatCalorie ControlChoosing a diet that balances the calories you eat with the amount of calories your body usesNutrient DensityAmount of vitamins and minerals relative to the calories the food providesLinking Nutrients, Foods, and HealthPlanning How You Will EatModerationNot too much or too littleVarietyInclude a lot of different foods in your diet Dietary GuidelinesIntended to help improve overall healthSimple, easy-to-understand statements about food choicesUsed to Develop educational materials Aid policy makers in designing and carrying out nutrition-related programsDietary Guidelines for AmericansCornerstone of federal nutrition policy and educationKey Recommendations for the Dietary Guidelines for Americans23 key recommendations for general population6 key recommendations for specific population groupsDietary Guidelines for AmericansOverarching ConceptsMaintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weightFocus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beveragesDietary Guidelines for AmericansBalancing Calories to Manage WeightObesogenic environmentFoods and Food Components to ReduceSodium, solid fats, added sugars, and refined grainsFoods and Nutrients to IncreaseVegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk and milk products, and some unsaturated oilsDietary Guidelines for AmericansRecommendations for specific population groupsWomen capable of becoming pregnantWomen who are pregnant or breastfeedingIndividuals age 50 years or olderDietary Guidelines for AmericansBuilding Healthy Eating PatternsAccess to established eating plansUSDA Food PatternsDASH Eating PlanFocus on preventing foodborne illnessCleanSeparateCookChillDietary Guidelines for AmericansWays to Incorporate the Dietary Guidelines into Your Daily LifeChoose more fruits, vegetables, and whole grainsEat fewer high-fat toppings and fried foodsExercise regularlyConsume sugar, salt, and alcohol in moderationDrink water more often than soft drinksUse caution if drinking alcoholDietary GuidelinesHistoryFirst dietary recommendations issued by USDA in 1894“Basic Four” popular from the 1950s through 1970sDietary Guidelines for Americans developed in 1980Food Guide Pyramid introduced in 1990sDietary GuidelinesMyPlateIntroduced in 2011USDA’s icon and primary food group symbolDietary GuidelinesMyPlateConveys key messagesEnjoy food but eat lessAvoid oversized portionsMake half your plate fruits and vegetablesDrink water instead of sugary drinksSwitch to fat-free or low-fat milkCompare sodium in foodsMake at least half your grains whole grainsDietary GuidelinesEating Well with Canada’s Food GuideHealth Canada responsible for helping Canadians maintain and improve health“Rainbow” places foods into four groups: Vegetables and Fruit, Grain Products, Milk and Alternates, and Meat and AlternatesDietary Guidelines in Diet PlanningUse to Determine the amount of calories you should consume each dayFamiliarize yourself with the types of food in each group, the number of recommended servings, and appropriate serving sizesPlan your meals and snacks using the suggested serving sizesDietary GuidelinesPortion DistortionPerception that large portion sizes are appropriateContributes to positive energy balance, leading to weight gain over time and ultimately may result in obesityExchange ListsUsing the exchange lists in diet planningHelp people with diabetes plan mealsUsed in many weight control programsFoods grouped by macronutrient contentStarchesFruitsMilksOther carbohydratesVegetablesMeats and meat substitutesFatsRecommendations for Nutrient Intake: The DRIsUnderstanding dietary standardsDietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)Recommendations for nutrient intakeTell us how much of each nutrient we should have in our dietsThe Dietary Reference IntakesEstimated Average Requirement (EAR)Intake value that meets the estimated nutrient needs of 50 percent of individuals in specific life-stage and gender groupsRecommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)Amount that meets the needs of most people (97-98%) in a life-stage and gender groupThe Dietary Reference IntakesAdequate Intake (AI)Nutrient intake that appears to sustain a defined nutritional state or some other indicator of health in a specific population or subgroupTolerable Upper Intake Level (Uls)Maximum levels of daily nutrient intakes that are unlikely to pose health risks to almost all of the individuals in the group for whom they are designedThe Dietary Reference IntakesEstimated Energy Requirement (EER)Intake predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent with good healthAcceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)Range of intakes for a particular energy source associated with reduced chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrientsFood LabelsIngredients and Other Basic InformationStatement of identify/name of the foodNew weight of the food contained inside of the packageName and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributorList of ingredients in descending order by weightNutrition informationFDA currently in process of changing Facts labelReflects latest scientific information, including link between diet and chronic diseasesReplaces out-of-date serving sizesHighlights key parts of label through new designFood LabelsClaims That Can Be Made for Foods and Dietary SupplementsNutrient Content ClaimsRegulated by the NLEA and FDAHave made an effort to use meaningful termsHave reduced the number of potentially misleading label statementsClaims That Can Be Made for Foods and Dietary SupplementsHealth claimsLink one or more dietary components to reduced risk of diseaseMust be supported by scientific evidenceApproved by FDAStructure/function claimsDescribe potential effects on body structures or functions, such as bone health, muscle strength, and digestion

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