A contrastive analysis between the verb ‘run’ in english and the verb ‘chạy’ in vietnamese

INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale In Vietnamese, the verb ‘chạy’ does not only indicate a physical activity only but also imply other situations in real life communication. To some extent, it is not too difficult to find such circumstances in which people use the verb ‘chạy’: ‘chạy ăn từng bữa toát mồ hôi’, ‘chạy làng’, ‘chạy triện đồng’ etc. Especially, modern Vietnamese language, which has developed and reflected the life in its own way, has been supplemented with many new words, or new interpretations to the existing words such as ‘chạy điểm’, ‘chạy trường’, ‘chạy án’, ‘chạy thận, ‘chạy sô’, etc. The verb ‘run’ in English, similarly, is rich in meaning which can be listed some expressions like ‘run in the race’, ‘run a company’, ‘run a risk’, ‘run a temperature’, ‘run the risk’ etc. How do English people find equivalents for such expressions like ‘chạy tang’, ‘chạy làng’, ‘chạy mả’, etc. in their language, and how do Vietnamese people translate such expressions like ‘run guns’, ‘hit and run’, etc? This is the very question that seriously runs in the author’s mind. Language is widely accepted as the reflection of life. By comparing languages, the similarities and differences not only between the languages but also between the speakers of the languages as well as their cultures can be revealed. R.J. D Pietro (1971:12), a French educational linguist, believed that CA was founded on the foreign language teaching experiences. Each language has its own phonological, morphological and syntactical features that could present difficulties for language learners. To help overcome specific teaching and learning predicaments, this thesis has been made with an attempt to create a definite pedagogical value with its presentation of effective teaching strategies. On these points of departure, the author has conducted the study entitled “A Contrastive Analysis between the Verb ‘Run’ in English and the Verb ‘Chạy’ in Vietnamese”. 2. Aims of the Study The study is aimed at: * Finding the similarities and differences between the verb ‘run’ in English and the verb ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese mainly in terms of MiCA and briefly in term of MaCA; * Providing recommendations for the teaching and learning as well as some tips when translating ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ into the target language. To fully achieve these aims, the study should answer the following questions: ã What are the grammatical and semantic features of each verb and how are they similar and different in terms of these features? ã What are their synonyms and idioms? ã What are the implications of the study for EFL teaching/learning and translation? 3. Scope of the Study This is a minor thesis. Consequently, it is unfeasible to discuss both the verbs in terms of MiCA and MaCA in details. Therefore, within this study, the author focuses on analyzing and contrasting them in terms of MiCA (concerning grammatical and semantic features of the two verbs), and just briefs the similarities and differences between them concerned with MaCA. The verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ have numerous synonyms and are used in relevant idioms. Thus, after an overview on them is given, some most common ones shall be introduced. 4. Methods of the Study The study has been carried out based on a combination of different methods as follow: - Document; - Synthesize and; - Analyze and contrast; The procedures of the study are: - To synthesize meanings of ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ as well as examples to illustrate from different sources such as from dictionaries, literary works, newspapers, magazines, films, native speakers and websites. - To collect synonyms of each verb as well as idioms in which they are used. - To analyze and contrast each verb in terms of MiCA and MaCA respectively to make clear the similarities and differences between them. - To suggest how to apply these findings to the language teaching/learning and translation. 5. Design of the Study The study consists of three parts organized as follows: Part I entitled “INTRODUCTION” outlining the background of the study in which a brief account of relevant information such as the rationale, aims, scope, methods and design of the study are provided. Part II, the “INVESTIGATION”, is subdivided into two chapters. The first Chapter is discussed the “THEORETICAL BACKGROUND” which provides necessary and relevant theoretical concepts for the main contents of the study, covering a series of concepts ranging from CA, contrasts between MiCA and MaCA, verbs in English and in Vietnamese, a brief introduction of synonyms, and idioms. Chapter 2: “A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE VERB ‘RUN’ IN ENGLISH AND THE VERB ‘CHẠY’ IN VIETNAMESE” discusses the two verbs in terms of MiCA and MaCA in succession. Each chapter ends with some concluding remarks. Part III, the “CONCLUSION”, which provides recapitulation, implications of the study for EFL teaching and learning and to translation from English to Vietnamese and vice versa, and recommendations for further research. The “REFERENCES” and “SOURCES OF THE DATA” mark the end of the thesis.

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* As complements. e.g. Hồi tham gia cuộc thi chạy vũ trang 10.000 mét. (41:45) (c)‘Chạy’ is both a transitive and intransitive verb. This means that it can be followed or not by an object. For example: - Mươi phút sau như có linh tính, mọi người cùng bứt lên chạy, mặc cho cành lá quật vào người rào rào… (27:49) - Cuộc thi hoa hậu vừa rồi, nó bỏ tiền ra chạy Ban tổ chức cho con Phương được hoa hậu đấy chứ. (44:61) (d) ‘Chạy’ can be used in indicative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative sentences. For example: - "Chúng tôi rất muốn biết người bỏ tiền chạy chọt để được thăng chức là ai?", ông Tuấn tỏ thái độ cầu thị. (47) - Khốn nạn... Ông giáo ơi! Nó có biết gì đâu! Nó thấy tôi gọi thì chạy ngay về, vẫy đuôi mừng. (48:56) - Chạy ngay đi! Mày muốn chết à. 2.1.2.2. Semantic Features Perhaps, when the first “Quốc ngữ” dictionary was published in the seventeenth century by Vicar Alexan Derot, he could not imagine such a great development of the vocabulary in the modern Vietnamese language. Among the development of Vietnamese vocabylary, the verb ‘chạy’ is used by Vietnamese people in everyday communication in many contexts and usages. 2.1.2.2.1. General Meanings In terms of general meanings, the verb ‘chạy’ has associated to the development of Vietnamese history. During the wartime in twentieth century, ‘chạy’ tied to the act of ‘chạy bom’; ‘chạy đạn’; ‘chạy giặc’ (generally mean running away from war danger); etc, later on closed to the state of ‘chạy ăn’; ‘chạy gạo’; ‘chạy chợ’, etc. (generally mean earning for one’s living), and nowadays, ‘chạy’ indicates the act of ‘chạy tội’; ‘chạy quan’; ‘chạy chức’, etc (generally reflect the act of bribing). By analyzing and synthesizing from the mentioned sources, we have brought out the following general senses of the verb ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese language. (1). To run Basically, ‘chạy’ denotes the act of running. Both Nguyễn Lân (2000) and Nguyễn Như Ý et all (1999) similarly define ‘chạy’ as the act of moving quickly by both feet. For examples: - Rồi Đào đi. Rồi Đào chạy… (42:153) - Chạy sút cầu môn khi bóng đang lăn về phía trước. (39:78) - Thằng thì chạy gần hộc máu mồm ra để tranh một cái giải chẳng thấm tháp vào đâu với số tiền bỏ ra để làm diều, để mua dây… (40:112) Relating to this meaning, ‘chạy’ can be used to show the act of moving fast from this place to others. - Chả là khi mọi người nháo nhác chen vai, huých cả vào bụng nhau để chạy xuống bếp, thì lão Quềnh thủng thẳng ra về. (42:49) - Trời ơi, sao mình chạy đi đâu nó cũng rượt theo vậy cà. (43:7) Besides, ‘chạy’ can be understood as moving from usual location to different ones, as in ‘Nhà tôi vừa chạy ra chợ.’ or ‘Nó đã chạy đến trường rồi ư!’. (2). To run away (from possible danger) The verb ‘chạy’ is often used to describe the act of running away, especially from danger. For examples: Khó khăn này dù sao cũng không hơn những ngày đi dân công chiến dịch, chạy giặc luồn càn hồi kháng chiến. (34:90) Anh thấy mình thật lạ lùng, và tự hỏi sao mình lại trở về cái nơi mà mọi người phải chạy? Để chuốc lấy cái gì nếu không phải là một cuộc sống gian khổ và cái chết tất nhiên? (28:12) Thế rồi đùng một cái, đánh nhau. Chúng tôi chạy được người chứ của thì chạy làm sao kịp? (40:45) (3). To be hurried Perhaps, this action can be interpreted in any language like ‘run (English); courir (French); begat (Russian) etc, as well as ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese: Chúng tôi chúi đầu chạy thục mạng về hướng khu rừng trước mặt. Tôi vấp chân vào một hòn đá suýt ngã giập xuống, may gượng lại được lảo đảo chạy tiếp, mặc cho ngón chân tóe máu đau nhói. (27:56) Họ vội vã, hấp tấp, hốt hoảng. Họ cuống cuồng bước lên thềm, chạy vào ga lấy vé, mặt tái nhợt, hơi thở dốc ra. (28:11) (4). To travel (of transportation) Referring to transportation, ‘chạy’ can be used to show the action of means of transportation in traffic system. Some typical cases below: - Một cái đầu tàu đang phì phì chạy một mình dồn những toa còn đẫm sương đêm cho chuyến tàu Nam. (28:3) - Còn một thân một mình, tôi bỏ đồn điền vô Sài Gòn, kiếm chiếc xích-lô chạy kiếm ăn qua ngày.. (34:58) - Nhưng ngoài đường tiếng xe chạy rầm rầm, tiếng giày đinh cồm cộp, tiếng súng lên đạn rôm rộp. (29:413) (5). To earn (for a living) In order to show that somebody needs to work very hard to earn a living, we should use the verb ‘chạy’ - Lo kiện cáo, lo thằng nhỏ bịnh, lo chạy chợ, người ốm tong ốm teo, bà con ai nhìn cũng thương. (34:86) - Anh ta mới chạy được một trăm bạc cho vợ con về quê. (28:102) (6). To ask or look for help ‘Chạy’ in this case should be understood as when somebody is in difficult, he runs around looking for help or support. For example: - Chị chạy tới sở, chạy tới những bạn bè, người quen, “hỏi thăm” có thấy anh ở đâu không, hy vọng làm như vậy sẽ báo được tin anh bị bắt cho những “người cần biết” mà chị không rõ họ là ai. (28:112) - Các ông đang cho người chạy khắp nơi tìm sự ủng hộ. (28:201) - Vâng, tuy về hưu nhưng quyền lực chị ấy to lắm. Các doanh nghiệp gặp khó khăn gì, toàn chạy cửa ấy thôi. (44: 29) (7). To try to get something (with a bribe) To reflect the status of bribing in order to achieve something ( a job, a social position, or property, etc.), we can exploit the use of the verb ‘chạy’. For example: - Rồi thiên hạ cũng biết lão Thanh bỏ tiền ra chạy cho mày chức hoa hậu...(44:285) - Các vị cán bộ ở nhà xây, nhà lắp ghép giờ mới thấy thất cách, liền chạy đất để làm nhà… Thế là những cuộc chạy xin cấp đất bắt đầu. (41:246) - Thuế một năm có một lần nếu chỉ trông vào đấy thì bán cha đi cũng không đủ để bù vào chỗ ba, bốn nghìn bạc chạy chọt để tranh triện đồng.. (40:45) (8). To try to escape (with a bribe) In contrast with the eighth meaning, in this group ‘chạy’ is used to reflect the social problems, that is taking the advantage of material or relation to escape from a judgment or to get out of bad situation, etc. For example: - Nhưng tên phó trưởng Ty công an đòi tôi phải bán rẻ cho hắn ngôi nhà ở Huế thì mới chịu chạy cho tôi ra. (34:120) - Nếu để lộ ra, cha Thanh chạy lên cấp trên ngay. Các ông ấy lại gọi điện thoại xuống can thiệp là hỏng hết. (44:175) (9). To operate/function We can also use the verb ‘chạy’ to describe the operation of a machine, a device, a computer program, etc. For examples: - … tận dụng khí biogas để chạy máy phát điện. - Đầu tiên, bạn chạy chương trình Microsoft Word. (10). To extend When describing the position of direction of something that extends from this place to another, we can make use of the verb ‘chạy’. For example: - Những nếp nhăn chạy dài trên vầng trán rộng ưu tư. (34:56) - Con đường xép chạy giữa cánh đồng nối liền hai làng này mới có từ khi hợp nhất hợp tác xã toàn xã,.. (42:134) - …trên nóc tường còn chạy quanh một hàng cọc sắt cao gần một mét, giăng đầy dây điện. (29:10) (11). To give up When somebody stops doing something, or dare not deal with a problem, we can use the verb ‘chạy’ to describe. For example: - Bị tố cáo, gã trưởng phòng đã bỏ của chạy lấy người. (40:18) - Nó lấm lét lảng dần cũng không dám chạy một cách thẳng thắn để đi trốn nữa. (12). To be in advantageous (in business) We use the verb ‘chạy’ to denote the advantageous status in business and management: - Sự thật là, dưới quyền điều hành của Weissman, Marlboro trở thành thuốc lá bán chạy nhất trên thế giới ba năm trước khi nó trở thành nhãn hiệu số 1 trên thị trường Mỹ. (37:112) - Công việc không chạy đều vì không có nhóm lãnh đạo. (13). To follow/to incline The verb ‘chạy’ can be used to show the tendency. For example: - Tướng Chiểu trước kia là người của cha Lê, sau khi lực lượng tự vệ Phát Diệm bị đàn áp, chạy sang quy thuận Diệm – Nhu. (34:155) - Cứ chạy theo mấy thầy trọc đầu, có ngày mất nước. (34:201) - Nhưng cũng không ít trường hợp mải chạy theo nhạc của thơ mà đánh rơi mất bản thân thơ. (32:46) - Tôi chỉ còn biết chạy theo dòng người, làm theo mọi người, không phải hô hào, chỉ huy, chỉ đạo gì hết. (31:89) (14). To pursue By this meaning, ‘chạy’ often combines with the word ‘theo’ to indicate that somebody chases after something blindly. For example: - Cứ mãi chạy theo một bóng hồng, hắn đã quên cả vợ con hắn ở nhà. - Tôi sẽ không bỏ phí thời giờ của tôi để chạy theo mấy anh láng giềng mỗi khi họ trở lại sau khi đã ra đi. (35:574) - Việc Cao Đức Lâm phạm tội là một bài học cảnh tỉnh cho các gia đình giàu có, vì mải mê chạy theo đồng tiền mà họ quên mất rằng việc giáo dục con cái đó là bổn phận của chính họ. (44:618) (15) Other Meanings In addition to the basic meanings of the verb ‘chạy’ mentioned above, we discover some minor ones in the following contexts: Bãi tha ma của làng ở đấy! Ông Phúc vừa chôn cụ Cố ở đấy! Đó là ông ngoại của Tùng. Một tia lạnh bỗng chạy dọc người Tùng. (42:151) Nhưng toàn thân anh bỗng nháy một cái như có tia điện chạy lướt từ chân lên đầu. (42:244) ‘Chạy’ in the above situation does not denote the physical feature of the action, but it denotes the feeling or it emphasizes the feeling. Bao nhiêu năm chạy trốn kỷ niệm cứ tưởng không thể quên, hóa ra mình đã quên hết mọi người, cái mình nhớ chỉ còn lại là cảm giác tủi thân và sự tổn thương. Also carry part of the meaning ‘run away’, but in the above case ‘chạy’ should be understood as ‘forget’. Dạo đó, đơn vị thiếu một liên lạc chạy công văn giấy tờ. (29:36) Ban chỉ huy chỉ giao cho bốn em những công việc vặt như chạy liên lạc về các trung đội, đưa công văn thư từ lên Chỉ huy sở... (29:153) Trước anh chỉ đóng những vai chạy cờ. (28:137) Vợ chồng Ích chỉ lăng xăng chạy ngoài. (42:108) In the two examples above, ‘chạy’ does not indicate the action but it function like the so-called ‘verbal noun’. ‘Chạy công văn giấy tờ’; ‘chạy liên lạc’ ‘chạy cờ’ or ‘lăng xăng chạy ngoài’ refer to the characteristics of the duty of the pesons who run . To put in a nutshell, listing out all the meanings of the verb ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese language is rather difficult. Basing on the available sources, we have made effort to draw out at least seventeen meanings in use of the verb ‘chạy’. However, languages develop inceaselly as time goes by. Some of meanings might no longer exist and some new meanings come to life which dictionaries have not updated. The word ‘chạy’ is not an exception. 2.1.2.2.2. Meanings in Some Idioms To a certain extent, for being a typical polysemantic word ‘chạy’ is brought about a great number of idioms that contain the verb ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese language. Hereinafter, some of the most popular ones are looked at in the following grid. No Idioms Meanings Examples 1 Chạy như ma đuổi Run very fast, run in a panic manner - Vừa hỏi, Thó vừa bước giật lùi. Được mấy bước, Thó quay cổ vùng chạy. Đúng là chạy như ma đuổi. (10:85) 2 Chạy lên trời Be hard to escape Dạ chú cứ yên tâm. Phen này thì con Lư có mà chạy lên trời! (33) 3 Chạy  vạy  mửa  mật Run around asking for help or support Đi  Tây  “đường  thẳng”  cũng  phải  chạy  vạy  mửa  mật, chui cửa trước, luồn cửa sau, huống hồ “chen ngang”. (38:23) 4  Chạy  chợ Do business; engage in small trade (buying and selling in thet market) Tuy bệnh tật những ngày con nhỏ, ăn uống  kham  khổ  và  làm  lụng  vất  vả  nhưng  cũng  do  tần tảo,  kiếm  củi,  chạy  chợ  mà  người chị  nở  nang. (18:107) 5 Chạy rống Bái công Flee in confusion (adapted from Chinese classic reference) Mày không chạy rống Bái công như mấy thằng tự vệ phố này là được rồi. (28:78) 6 Chạy long tóc gáy Be hard working, running around to get something Y tá Sỹ chạy long tóc gáy mới được một ít bông băng. (28:121) 7 Chạy như cờ lông công Run fast and hard Cả hai phải chạy như cờ lông công suốt ngày trên khắp mặt trận, liên lạc, truyền tin, trinh sát, đưa công văn giấy tờ... (29:294) 8 Chạy theo một bóng hồng Chase a beautiful girl … kể cả có thời kỳ chính ông đã toan phá giới, trút bộ áo nhà tu để chạy theo một bóng hồng. (34:436) 9 Chạy làng Refuse to pay, breach the commitment - Ông chạy làng đấy à? Được thôi. Nhưng tên vợ ông thì tôi cứ để đấy… (44:656) 10 Chạy trời không khỏi nắng Be unable to avoid a bad situation Nó đã trốn đi rồi, nhưng vẫn sợ rằng chạy trời không khỏi nắng. 2.1.2.2.3. Synonyms of ‘Chạy’ The word ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese with various senses as we have analyzed above, naturally, has countless synonyms. With each sense alone, it is really hard to list its synonyms. Hence, we do not have ambition of discussing all; we just try to make an overview on them. Basically, when ‘chạy’ denotes the act of running we can replace it by such expressions as ‘phóng’, ‘phi nhanh’, ‘co giò’,‘ lao nhanh’,etc . It is noteworthy that we are unable to find an exactly the same meaning with ‘chạy’. Therefore, the placement should be careful. Such as: It is fine to say ‘Anh ta đang lao nhanh về đích’ but it is unreasonable to describe ‘Anh ấy thường co giò trong công viên vào mỗi buổi sáng’. When we use ‘chạy’ to show the act of moving, we can exploit expressions like ‘di chuyển’, ‘chuyển đi’, ‘đi khỏi’, ‘dời đi’, ‘đi’, etc instead of ‘chạy’. For example: Sao mình đi đâu nó cũng bám theo vậy? Anh ấy đang di chuyển rất linh hoạt trên sân. Concerning the sense ‘running away from possible danger’, the verb ‘chạy’ is equivalent with ‘đi vội’, ‘lánh đi’, ‘lẩn đi’, ‘di tản’, ‘trốn’, ‘lánh nạn’, ‘cao chạy xa bay’, etc. For example: Rồi Lạc đi vội vã tránh cái ánh mắt soi mói của lão. (42:380) Để  giữ  cái  bộ  mặt “nhân  nghĩa”,  nó  đã  lánh  đi  từ  sớm  tinh  mơ. (38:349) When referring to the state of hurrying, expressions like ‘vội vã’, ‘nhanh chóng’, ‘hối hả’, ‘gấp rút’, etc can be used to replace ‘chạy’. For instance: - Hiếu vội vã đi lên gặp cụ. (38:33) - ...  già trẻ, gái trai sấp ngửa nhanh chóng kéo nhau ra miếu để học tập (38:402) - Tùng đứng một mình một lúc để ngẫm nghĩ, rồi quay đầu hối hả về xóm Mới. (42:218) Referring to the operation of machinery or means of transportation, ‘chạy’ might be replaced by ‘lao’, ‘phi’, ‘phóng’, ‘bon’, ‘lưu hành’, ‘vận hành’, ‘hoạt động’, ‘điều khiển’, ‘băng qua’, ‘rầm rập’, etc. For example: - Người điều khiển phương tiện trên đường phải tuyệt đối tuân thủ luật lệ giao thông. - Tên lái cứ phóng xe, không thèm ngoảnh mặt lại. (28:63) With the meaning of ‘working hard to earn for a living’, ‘chạy’ is synonymous with ‘kiếm sống’, ‘mưu sinh’, ‘làm ăn’, ‘kiếm ăn’, etc. For example: - Cậu cả dùng cái sức cơ bắp của mình đi làm thuê làm mướn kiếm ăn. (42:13) - Quý vốn là người chỉ biết bới đất lật cỏ làm ăn, còn nguyên vẹn là một nông dân thuần phác, dễ phục tùng. (42:23) By the meaning of expecting for help, ‘chạy’ might be replaced by such expressions as ‘chạy chọt’, ‘nhờ vả’, ‘trông cậy’, ‘cậy nhờ, etc. For example: - Chắc hẳn vợ Tuyến đã nhanh chóng đánh hơi được mối quan hệ giữa cha Hoàng với chính quyền mới nên định nhờ vả cho chồng. (34:58) Reflecting the status of making use of materialistic matters for bribing in order to achieve something, ‘chạy’ is almost absolute synonymous with ‘đút lót’, ‘hối lộ’, ‘luồn cúi’, ‘chạy vạy’, ‘lợi dụng’, ‘mua’, ‘mua chuộc’, etc. For example: - Nghiêm…Làm gì có thứ đàn ông nào nghiêm được với vợ. bác còn là người tử tế, ít lợi dụng cái ô của chồng để làm ăn, … (44:245) - Ông ấy bảo cháu muốn đi thì ông ấy giúp, không phải mất đến một điếu thuốc đút lót. (42:457) When ‘chạy’ denotes the advantageous status in business and management, it can be a synonym of the expressions like ‘đắt (hàng)’, ‘thuận lợi’, ‘suôn sẻ’, ‘xuôi chèo mát mái’, ‘thuận buồm xuôi gió’, etc as in the contexts below: - Công việc kinh doanh của nhà hàng đang thuận buồm xuôi gió. - Được, rồi cô xem, lại chả đắt như tôm tươi. By indicating that somebody chases after something/someone ‘chạy’ is well substituted with ‘theo đuổi’, ‘săn đuổi’, ‘bám lấy’, ‘ám’, etc. For example: - Còn Ðiền lúc ấy có thể rảnh rang theo đuổi cái mộng của Ðiền... (40:147) - Tôi đang săn đuổi một thứ gì đó rất mơ hồ. To conclude, we would like to emphasize that discussing synonyms of ‘chạy’ itself is worth a separate study and that it is impossible to do this within this work. It is hoped that this humble overview can satisfy you to some extent. 2.1.3. Findings Visually, people may believe that ‘run’ in English is the same as ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese. The point is not wrong but it is not absolute. Actually, deep study on these two verbs has pointed out that they are similar but not exactly identical. On the scope of this part, we made an attempt to draw out similarities and differences between ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ in which more emphasis on microlinguistic features than macrolinguistic ones are given. 2.1.3.1. In Terms of Grammatical Features 2.1.3.1.1. Similarities Firstly, in terms of grammatical features, both ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ have the following features in common: Both occur as a part of or a predicator of a sentence. For example: - When the ladies removed after dinner, Elizabeth ran up to her sister, and seeing her well guarded from cold, attended her into the drawing-room. (8:67) - Sau bữa ăn tối, Elizabeth chạy lên phòng chị mình, chuẩn bị áo ấm cho cô, đưa cô ra phòng khách. (35:70) They can function as subjects, objects, or complements, etc. in a sentence. "This program will be built on the idea that running is fun, racing is fun, improving is fun, and winning is fun..’’ (23:206) Chạy thế thì tai nạn là phải. Everyone kept running, the goal quietly understood. (21:207) Cái Hoa cứ chạy. Vấp ngã, vực dậy lại chạy, chạy như bị đuổi bắt. (42:181) Rudy and Francois, of course, attempted to run away,… (13:197) Thuấn nhìn theo, nắm tay Huệ, nắm rất chặt, nửa như để an ủi, nửa lại giống như rịt lấy, như sợ Huệ bỏ chạy đi mất. (43:696) Moreover, both are transitive and intransitive verbs. Therefore, they can occur with or without subjects, consequently, they may be used in active or passive voices. Never mind that we spent entire winters flying kites, running kites. (11:45) Đói mẹ, khát cha. Khi chưa biết chạy diều In the end, I ran. (11:45) Còn con khỉ, con gấu, hoảng loạn dựt đứt xích chạy biến. (29:92) In other words, the U.S. Census Bureau is run by radical leftists (16:5) Vẻ vàng gì! Gã ấy được bố vợ chạy cho chân trưởng phòng thôi. On the ground of morphological features, both ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ are monosyllabic words. However, they are very flexible in compounding. Firstly, they are able to be followed with nouns to form compound words, such as ‘run a fever’; ‘run a temperature’; ‘run a risk’; ‘run an errand’, etc in English and ‘chạy chợ’; ‘chạy cô-ta’; ‘chạy trường’; ‘chạy điểm’; ‘chạy tang’; ‘chạy dự án’; ‘chạy sô’, etc in Vietnammese among which many compounds have become idioms. Secondly, they can combine with the so-call prepositions in English and ‘giới ngữ’ in Vietnamese (Diep Quang Ban: 2005) to form a great number of phrase verbs such as ‘run into; run for; run away, run out of; run up; run down; run over; run through; etc’ and ‘chạy vào; chạy ra; chạy lên; chạy xuống; chạy qua; chạy dọc theo; etc’. 2.1.3.1.2. Differences On the contrary, some differences between ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ in terms of grammatical features can be described as following: First, ‘run’ carries markers of grammatical categories such as tense, aspects, person, number, etc. but ‘chạy’ does not. For example: He runs very fast. (Anh ấy chạy nhanh) He ran to the school yesterday. (Hôm qua anh ấy chạy tới trường) He is running like a wind. (Anh ấy chạy nhanh như gió.). ..do cure the younger girls of running after the officers. (8:85) (..anh hãy chấn chỉnh các cô em gái luôn chạy theo cách sĩ quan.) (35:112) However, nothing changes to ‘chạy’ in any tense, aspect, with any number or person, while ‘run’ has to change in accordance with different tenses, aspects, numbers and person. To indicate tenses in Vietnamese, people use such particles as ‘đã’, ‘đang’, ‘sẽ’, ‘mới’, ‘sắp sửa, ‘rồi’, etc and auxiliaries like ‘bị’, ‘được’ to indicate aspects. Second, on the ground of morphological features, the differences are found as follows: It is the basic differentiation between the two languages that makes ‘run’ and ‘chay’ differ in term of morphological feature. Vietnamese is widely considered the monosyllabic system while English is polysyllabic one. Therefore, ‘chạy’ is non-finite in any cases, but ‘run’ has five forms: the base, the s-form, the past form, the past participle and the –ing participle. Similarly, ‘chạy’ has no derivates whereas by means of derivation, ‘run’ has such derivates as runable, runner, runny, running, runs, etc. Besides, it is noteworthy that ‘chạy’ is more flexible than ‘run’ when ‘chạy’ combines with adverbs. For instance, ‘run’ is often followed with ‘fast’; ‘quickly’; rapidly and so forth while ‘chạy’ is quite diversified such as ‘chạy tán loạn’; ‘chạy rầm rập’; ‘chạy hối hả’; ‘chạy rầm rộ’; ‘chạy lăng quăng’; ‘chạy té tát’; ‘chạy lon ton’; ‘chạy lạch đạch’; ‘chạy chồm chồm’; etc. Moveover, ‘chạy’ is also more flexible when combining with nouns. The compound nouns of the verb ‘chạy’ can be devided into two groups. The first group should be ‘chạy + X’ like ‘chạy giặc, chạy lụt, chạy bão, chạy mưa, chạy tội, chạy án, etc’ which means that people ‘run’ to avoid the things followed after ‘run’, e.g. ‘chạy giặc’ means ‘to get out of war zone’; ‘chạy án’ refers to ‘avoid a judgment’. The second group is also ‘chạy + X’ like ‘chạy gạo’, ‘chạy tiền’, ‘chạy cô-ta’; ‘chạy thầy chạy thuốc, etc, however, it conveys the opposite meaning, that is people run for the things that go after the verb ‘chạy’. 2.1.3.2. In Terms of Semantic Features 2.1.3.2.1. Similarities In general, both ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ are the typical verbs. Accordingly, they all have common semantic features of a verb, that is, both refer to an action, a state, an activity or a progress. More particularly, both ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ share at least thirteen similar general meanings, which are reflected in the following grid. No Means in common Examples in English Examples in Vietnamese 1 To move quickly on feet I can run very fast. Tôi có thể chạy rất nhanh 2 To move with haste; act quickly He ran as he never had before… Anh ấy chưa bao giờ chạy nhanh như thế… 3 To depart quickly; flee or escape He has run away from the city Nó đã chạy trốn khỏi thành phố. 4 To have recourse for aid, support, comfort, etc He should not run to his parents with every little problem. Anh ấy không nên chạy đến ba mẹ chỉ vì những chuyện nhỏ nhặt. 5 To make a quick trip or informal visit for a short stay at a place I just run up to Ball’s house for a while. Tớ chạy sang nhà Ball một lúc nhé. 6 to go around, rove, or ramble We run about on the street. Chúng tôi chạy thong thả trên đường. 7 To take part in a race I am not strong enough to run a marathon. Tôi chưa đủ sức để chạy thi ma-ra-tông. 9 To operate or function How does your new watch run Chiếc đồng hồ mới của cậu chạy tốt không? 10 To extent in a given direction This road runs along the park. Con đường này chạy dọc theo công viên. 11 To pass quickly A cold ray runs along my body. Một tia lạnh chạy dọc người tôi. 12 To tend She keeps running after modern fashion. Cô ấy mải miết chạy theo các mốt tân thời. 13 To campaigh (for election) Jack Eckerd ran for senator and joining the president Ford administration in Washington. Jack Eckerd chạy đua chức thượng nghị sĩ và tham gia vào chính quyền tổng thống Ford ở Washington. Idiomatically, ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ may have some meanings to coincide which means that the idioms contain both ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ using the same expression to actually indicating hides behind their appearances. Therefore, these idioms are not difficult for the users of both languages to recognize and interpret. Below, we list some equivalences of the idioms derived from ‘run’ and ‘chạy’: - Run like the wind çè Chạy nhanh như gió - Learn to creep before you run çè Chưa học bò đã lo học chạy - The last drop makes the cup run over çè Giọt nước tràn ly - Run out of time çè Hết giờ/thời gian - Run away with çè Chạy trốn (cùng ai) - Run for one’s life çè Chạy thục mạng/chạy bán sống bán chết - Run around in circles çè Chạy loăng quăng - Run out of steam çè Chạy hết hơi - Run the show çè Chạy sô - Run errands çè Chạy việc lặt vặt - Run like hell çè Chạy như ma đuổi - Run in place çè Chạy tại chỗ - Eat and run çè Vừa ăn vừa chạy - Run kite çè Chạy diều 2.1.3.2.2. Differences In terms of denotational meanings, we are able to state that the verb ‘run’ is richer than the verb ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese language. However, ‘chạy’ is more original with some special usage. For example, in English, people say ‘She ran into her old friend at the party’ and if we translate this sentence word by word into Vietnamese, we may mislead like ‘Cô ấy chạy tới một cô bạn cũ tại bữa tiệc’. To some extent, the translators misunderstood the actual meaning of the verb ‘run’ here. It should be ‘Cô ấy tình cờ gặp lại người bạn cũ tại bữa tiệc’. The example shows how mother toungue interference affects nonnative speakers and how CA really helps in this case. When trying to clarify some senses that ‘run’ has but ‘chạy’ does not, we discover at least fifteen meanings which are described in the following grid: No ‘Run’s Meanings Examples in English Possible Vietnamese equivalents 1 To flow(of liquid) The river runs into the sea Sông chảy ra biển 2 To spread rapidly The news of his promotion ran all over the town. Tin anh ấy được thăng chức lan ra toàn thì trấn. 3 To melt The sun makes the ice run. Mặt trời làm cho đá tan chảy. 4 To elapse; pass; go by (of time) Time is running out, and we must hurry. Không còn nhiều thời gian, chùng ta phải nhanh lên. 5 To get or become The well run dry He’s running into debt. Cái giếng đã cạn khô. Anh ấy đang rơi vào cảnh nợ nần. 6 To be stated or worded My presentation runs as follow: Phần trình bày của tôi như sau: 7 To proceed, continue The story runs for eight pages. Câu chuyện kéo dài trong tám trang giấy. 8 To cost This watch runs US$50. Chiếc đồng hồ này giá 50 USD. 9 To have legal force or effect (of legal) The contract runs to the end of 2009. Hợp đồng có hiệu lực đến hết năm 2009 10 To be published The New York Times is running a series of Clinton’s autobiography. Tờ Thời báo New York đang đăng một loạt bài vể cuốn tự truyện của Clinton. 12 To convey (of transportation) I’ll run you home in my car. Tớ sẽ đưa cậu về nhà bằng xe của tớ. 13 To smuggle He is sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for running guns across the border. Gã ấy bị kết án 10 năm tù vì tội buôn lậu vũ khí qua biên giới. 14 To manage or conduct Singleton continued to run the company well into his seventies. Singleton tiếp tục điều hành tốt công ty của mình khi bước sang tuổi bảy mươi. 15 To support somebody (in an election) They decided to run her for the major. Họ quyết định ủng hộ cô ta vào chức thị trưởng. On the contrary, we also discover at least four meanings that ‘run’ can be used while ‘chạy’ cannot. These meanings are looked at the following grid. No ‘Chạy’s Meanings Examples in Vietnamese Possible English equivalents 1 To bribe someone in to doing something Hắn đút lót cấp trên để chạy chức giám đốc nhân sự. He bribed the higher authorities to get position of human resources manager. 2 To socilit (to escape from a legal judgment) Chính vì tiền mà bà đã làm hỏng thằng con trai. Bây giờ bà lại định dùng tiền để bà chạy tội cho nó... It’s was her greed for money that she spoiled her son. Now, she still intents to absolve him by money,… 3 To be advantageous (in business, especially in sale) Waterford Glass trở thành hãng bán đồ pha lê chạy nhất ở Mỹ… Waterford Glass became the best-seller of crystal in U.S market… 4 To give up Biết Lài có bầu, hắn tìm cách chạy làng. Knowing that Lài is pregnant, he tried to quit the game. In terms of the idioms derived from ‘run’ and ‘chạy’, it is noted that the misinterpretion will be happened easily if we are simply based on the nature of the mother tongue language. Hereinafter, we compare some idioms included ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ to show interesting ways of using idioms with the studied verbs. N0 Idioms with ‘run’ Suggested Vietnamese Equivalents 1 Still water runs deep. (English proverb) Tẩm ngẩm tầm ngầm mà đấm chết voi 2 Try to run before one can walk Cầm đèn chạy trước ô tô/Chưa học bắt mèo đã lo ẻ bếp 3 The course of true love never did run smooth Tình yêu chân thành chẳng bao giờ êm thấm 4 When the tree is fallen, anyone runs to it with his axe. Dậu đổ bìm leo 5 One can runs away but one can’t hide Chạy trời không khỏi nắng 6 Run the risk Liều mạng 7 Run hot and cold Đỏng đà đỏng đảnh/thất thường 8 Hold with the hare and run with the hounds Giả nhân giả nghĩa/Bắt cá hai tay 9 Cut and run Đánh bài chuồn 10 One’s blood runs cold Sợ xanh mặt 11 Run like the clockwork Chính xác từng giây 12 Run into a stone wall Đâm đầu vào đá 13 Run riot Phát điên, phát rồ N0 Idioms with ‘chạy’ Suggested English Equivalents 1 Chạy buồm xem gió To forecast before making decision 2 Chạy chữa Try hard to treat medically 3 Chạy bữa To ern for one's daily bread 4 Chạy đua vũ trang Arms race 5 Chạy thầy To go in search of a doctor 6 Chạy tang To move up the date (of a wedding because someone in the family is going to die) 7 Chạy chợ To engage in small trade/to huckster 8 Chạy loạn To evacuate 9 Chạy như chó phải pháo To run in a panic manner (like dog scares of firecracker’s noise ) 10 Chạy chọt To solicit For better illustration, we try to analyze some typical situations which ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ are used to denote the different idiomatic senses. In the saying ‘You've got to decide to chose between them. You can't run with the hare and hunt with the hounds’, if users do not master the implication of the idiom ‘run with hare and hunt with the hounds’ they might translate something like ‘Bạn phải quyết định chọn một trong hai người. Bạn không thể chạy cùng thỏ rồi lại đi săn cùng chó sói’. In fact, the understanding does not go too far the point, but it would be better to translate like ‘Bạn phải quyết định chọn một trong hai người. Bạn không thể bắt cá hai tay như thế được’. In another example, if somebody translate ‘Kiếm được ít tiền, hắn tính chuyện chạy làng’ into ‘Having earn some money, he intended to run to the village’ , we can suppose that the user might not be the native speaker because he misleads ‘chạy làng’ means ‘run to the village’ but not ‘refuse to pay or give up the game’. Thus, the translation should be corrected into ‘Having earn some money, he intended to quit the game’. Therefore, to some extent, the foregoing comparison may help the users of both languages reduce the unnecessary irrelevances in interpreting when exchange the verb ‘RUN’ in English and ‘CHẠY’ in Vietnamese. 2.1.4. Concluding Remarks Above, we have endeavoured to bring about the contrastive analysis of the verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ in terms MiCA. By comparing ‘run’ with ‘chạy’ and vice versa respectively in respects of grammatical features which categorised into syntactic features; morphological features; and semantic features in which we dealt with general meanings and meanings in some idioms as well as synonyms of each word, we are able to state some similarities and differences between the target verbs. Accordingly, ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ share quite a lot similar syntactic features, some similar morphological features. Furthermore, ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ coincide in their general meanings and meanings in some idioms. Interestingly, ‘run’ is richer in meanings, consequently richer in synonyms than ‘chạy’, whereas, ‘chạy’ is better used in compounds and idioms. In the coming chapter, we will discuss ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ on the ground of MaCA. 2.2. A Contrastive Analysis between the Verb ‘run’ in English and the Verb ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese in terms of Macrolinguistic Contrastive Analysis In order to achieve an overall understanding of the verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’, within this assignment, the author endeavoured to view ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ in terms of MaCA following the approach proposed by Carl James (1980:100&101). Due to the restriction of the minor thesis, we will not study with each verb separately. We will briefly work out how they are similarly and differently affected by means of participant, setting, purpose, key, content, and channel in succession. Because macrolinguistic is a field of study concerned with language in its broadest sense and including cultural and behavioral features associated with language or in other words, with extralinguistc factors. Therefore, we narrowed the subjects and aimed at English and Vietnamese native speakers. By synthesizing different sources of documents, observing, interviewing about the subjects we drew out some findings hereinafter. 2.2.1. Findings 2. 2.1.1. In terms of Participants Participants are those who create the ingredients of communication which are: source, encoding, message, channel, receiver, decoding, receiver response and feedback. Among the ingredients, encoding and decoding are of special significance. Therefore, the more diversified types of speakers and listener the more different ways of decoding and encoding the source of communication. We found situations in which the verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ are utters to convey the implication of social positions; kinship relations, age, gender, economic conditions, education, etc of the participants. For examples: A father to his son: Con chạy lên phố mua giúp bố chiếc ra-đi-ô nhé. (A son to his father: Tiện lên phố bố mua giúp con chiếc ra-di-ô nhé.) A man to his colleague (of equal status): Tớ lượn/chạy/ lên phố có tí việc đây A woman to her stubborn son: Sao mày chứ chạy rông ngoài đường thế hả con. A young man to his friend: Thôi thì mày lượn/phắn/biến đi cho yên chuyện. A policeman to a thief: Anh không tẩu thoát (chạy trốn) được đâu. Likely, in English the verb ‘run’ is sometimes replaced with other expressions by communicators, for examples: A manager to his staff: Run this project as soon as possible! Staff to his manager: We will implement the project as the soonest. A policeman to a thief: Don’t think about fleeing. No way! A man to his girlfriend: I’ll take/carry/run you home in my car. Therefore, the speakers and addressors must bear in mind to whom they are talking to select the appropriate words for more effective communication. 2.2.1.2. In terms of Setting Setting has certain influences on what is uttered by Vietnamese and English people. Carl James (1980) said “questions put to a lecturer in the bar after the plenary session will be formulated differently from those put in the conference hall”. Sometimes, ‘run’ is replaced with ‘sprint, flow, flee, travel, or escape, etc’, and ‘chạy’ is replaced with ‘phi, bon bon, rầm rập, hối hả, etc’. The replacement possibly decided by the contexts. Following, we analyze some cases to show how ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ is flexible in certain contexts. To describe the stream of military truck runs to the front line in the wartime, we may write ‘Từng đoàn xe đang rầm rập trên đường ra mật trận’. To describe the quick movement of the trains, we may say ‘Từng đoàn tàu đang hối hả vể ga’. To emphasize that someone drives exeeding the limit speed, we can use ‘phóng nhanh vượt ẩu’ instead of ‘chạy quá tốc độ cho phép’. However, in a legal document, the expression ‘phóng nhanh vượt ẩu’ must be clarified by ‘chạy quá tốc độ cho phép’. Similarly, in English, the use of ‘run’ is flexible to conform to the setting. For example, to describe a sportsman racing at fast speed we can say ‘He is spriting to the finish’; or in written language ‘operate’ or ‘function’ are often used to replace ‘run’ when denoting the operation of a machine. 2.2.1.3. In terms of Key It is undeniable that the tone, manner or spirit in which a speech act is carried out has strong influences on what really messages by speakers. It affects meaning and function of utterances. For example, with the same utterance ‘Chạy đi’ or ‘Run (away)’ can imply different messeges with different tones. - Chạy đi!/Run! (with fast and high tone) means a warning. - Chạy đi!/Run! (with slow and high tone and grind of teeth) means a threatening. - Chạy đi!/Run away! (with stresses on ‘đi’ and ‘away’) means a challenging. - Chạy đi/Run! (with very high tone emphasized with the repetation of the verbs) means an encouragement 2.2.1.4. In terms of Content To a certain extent, the contents of all types of communication effects on how, what and when to decode and encode the messeges. For instance, in Vietnamese joking we can say ‘Anh ấy chạy như bị tào tháo đuổi’ or ‘Tôi đang bị chạy hậu’ (can be understood that somebody has problem with his belly and he has to run to toilet all the time.). In another case, when demonstrating the functions of a new machine, normally, Vietnamese people use ‘vận hành’; ‘hoạt động’ instead of ‘chạy’ as in: Máy này hoạt động trên nguyên tắc cải tiến cơ chế tự động’ or ‘Khi vận hành thiết bị, cần lưu ý bảo đảm an toàn lao động’. Interestingly, when talking about social matters informally, Vietnamese people usually use ‘chạy chọt’ rather than ‘hối lộ’ or ‘đút lót’ to mention that someone uses money or takes the advantage of power to get jobs or to have better positions. For the English language, contents also have strong influence on whether people choose ‘run’ or other equivalents. For examples, talking about an election, informally, we can use ‘run for the major’, but formally, we use ‘campaign for the senator’. Refferring to the topic of business, English people prefer ‘run’ than ‘manage’ when denoting that somebody sets up and controls his own organization. 2.2.3. Concluding Remarks ‘Run’ and ‘chạy’, actually, are not strongly influenced by the macrolinguistic elements. Both of the verbs denote physical actions more than indicate the states which closely connect to the social-cultural elements. Nevertheless, serious effort has been made to analyze ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ in their broadest sense and include some aspects of cultural and behavioral features associated with language. Accordingly, at least the participants, setting, key and content have certain influences on the uses of the verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ in English and Vietnamese languages. PART III CONCLUSIONS 1. Recapitulation The process of contrastive analysis between the verbs ‘run’ in English and ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese their idioms has clarified almost the questions posed before doing the research. To keep the right track for the study, we have made effort to find out the similarities and differences between the studied objects in terms of MiCA and MaCA basing on the theoretical background. As far as MiCA was concerned, these two verbs are analyzed and contrasted in respects of grammatical features, semantic features, their synonyms as well as idioms with them which were the focus of the study. The findings can be summarized as follow: ‘Run’ and ‘chạy’ share quite a lot of similar syntactic features such as they have different functions in a sentence such as predicate, subject, complement, or object. They also share some similar morphological features. ‘Run’ carries markers of grammatical categories such as tense, aspects, person, number and mood while ‘chạy’ does not. In terms of semantic features, the verb ‘run’ is found at least twenty-three groups of general meanings, ten popular run’s idioms are deeply discussed, hundreds of run’s synonyms are introduced with careful quotations from different sources of data. Similarly, at least fifteen general meanings the verb ‘chạy’ are listed, further discussion about ten typical chạy’s idioms, many chạy’s synonyms are also mentioned. Basing on the results of studying the two verbs separately, we run to the following findings: + ‘Run’ and ‘chạy’ share at least thirteen similar general meanings + ‘Run’ has at least fifteen items of meanings differing from ‘chạy’ + ‘Chạy’ is found at least four items of meanings differing from ‘run’ + At least fifteen pairs of idioms derived from‘run’ and ‘chạy’ have the same expressions. + ‘Chạy’ is more flexible than ‘run’ in compounding abitily; therefore, ‘chạy’ is richer than ‘run’ in terms of idioms. In terms of MaCA, basing on Hymes (1974) and Carl James (1980) suggestions, we figure out that such social-cultural elements as participant setting, key and content differently affects the uses of ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ and their equivalents. To put in a nutshell, this study is conducted with the hope of providing an overall understanding about the verb ‘run’ in English and the verb ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese in respects of both MiCA and MaCA. We do wish to highlight the awareness of EFL teachers and learners about the similarities and differences between them to avoid their mother tongue interference when dealing with these two verbs as well as their idioms. 2. Implication of the Study 2.1. For EFL Teaching and Learning The final aim of language teaching is to develop learners’ communicative competence as well as linguistic competence. Knowing a language is not only knowing the grammatical rules, but also knowing when and where it is appropriate to use, how to use, and to what people. Teaching vocabulary also means providing learners with an increasing number of words and their equivalents in the target language which help them choose what to use with ease and interpret accurately in different contexts. Therefore, not only is it important to provide grammatical meaning and lexical meaning of a word, but also to provide their sense relations such as its synonyms or antonyms, etc. Being aware of its importance, we have endeavoured to provide a contrastive analysis between the verb ‘run’ in English and the verb ‘chạy’ in Vietnamese. Ur (1996:63) suggested different ways of presenting meaning of new items such as concise definition, detailed description, illustration, demonstration, contextualization, examples, synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms, translation and associated ideas or collocations. When teaching ‘run’, ‘chạy’ and their idioms, we should combine some methods rather than use only one. To avoid monotonous traditional way of introducing idioms, EFL teachers can use games with idioms which now available at many websites on the Internet. There are very few absolute synonyms, thus, the teaching ‘run’, ‘chạy’ and idioms with them should not be isolated from their contexts. During learning and teaching processes, both EFL teachers and learners should be aware of the similarities and differences, particularly the differences between them which will restrict the mother tounge interference at the maximum. This helps to avoid culture shocks or “stupid” mistakes in communication. That is what a contrastive analysis aims at. 2.2. For Translation from English to Vietnamese and Vice Versa Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text that communicates the same message from the source text to the target language. Translation must take into account the constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. Therefore, there exists a common misconception when newcomers of translation interpret word-for-word correspondence between any two languages. This translation is like a straightforward mechanical process; such a word-for-word translation, however, cannot take into account context, grammar, conventions, and idioms. Therefore, to find the best equivalents for ‘run’ or ‘chạy’, translators should master all semantic features of all lexical items and take the contexts as well as other macrolinguistic factors in to account. It is hoped that the study can help the translators when working with the verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ in their general meanings, their idioms, their synonyms and other microlinguistic factors that effect the uses of the two verbs. The findings of the study on the ground of general meanings may help the translators to find the appropriate expressions when dealing with the specific situations where the verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ are used. The findings of the contrastive analysis on the idioms in which ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ are used may help the users over come possible difficulties when translating the contexts in which the idioms are used. For example, it is possible for the users to translate such idioms as ‘run like the wind’ in to ‘chạy nhanh như gió’, or ‘learn to creep before you run’ in to ‘chưa học bò đã lo học chạy’, etc. However, there are many expressions of both languages which are difficult for the translators. The study on the synonyms of the verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ may help the translator decide the best word choice when working with the two verbs. Finally, some aspects of cultural and behavioral features associated with the uses of the verbs ‘run’ and ‘chạy’ are studied to help the users avoid unnecessary misinterpretation when working with the two verbs. 3. Recommendations for Further Research The authors conducted this research with a focus on MaCA rather than MaCA due to the limitations and requirement of the M.A. research. To a certain extent, some matters have not been thoroughly investigated. We, therefore, have recommendations for further research which are surely promising, interesting and welcome: An investigation into ‘run’ and its synonyms and antonyms An investigation into ‘run’ and its idioms; An investigation into ‘chạy’ and its synonyms and antonyms An investigation into ‘chạy’ and its idioms; REFERENCES In English 1 A.P. Cowie and R. Mackin. (1993). Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Oxford University Press, Printed in Hong Kong 2 Baker, M. (1992). In Other Words: A Course Book on Transaltion. Routledge, London & New York. 3 Charles C. Fries. (1945). Teaching and Learning English as foreigh language. Michigan: University of Michigan Press 4 Chaturvedi, M.G. (1973). A Constrastive Study of Hindi-English Phonology. 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Những câu tục ngữ tiếng Việt và tiếng Anh tương đương. www.cotab.com 35 Nguyễn Minh Tiến. (2004). Từ điển thành ngữ Anh - Việt (English - Vietnamese Idioms Dictionary). Nhà xuất bản Trẻ Websites and Electric Dictionaries 1 Encarta® World English Dictionary, North American Edition (www.encarta.msn.com) 2 3 Lacviet Mtd 2002- EVA. 4 The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (www.bartleby.com) 5 The Wordsmyth English Dictionary-Thesaurus (www.wordsmyth.com) 5 Wikitionary (www.wikitionary.com/run) 7 www. onlook.com/?w=run&ls=b 8 www.answers.com/topic/run 9 www.idioms.thefreedictionary.com/run 10 www.thesaurus.reference.com/browse/run

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