Đề thi TOEFL năm 2001

1. (A) He has just recovered from the flu. (B) He won’ t be able to go to the play. (C) He heard that the play isn’ t very good. (D) He has already seen the play. 2. (A) Share the place he’ s renting. (B ) Avoid living near the campus. (C) Apply for campus housing. (D) Find an apartment soon

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2001쓪 5퓂 TOEFL뾼쳢 Section One: Listening Comprehension 1. (A) He has just recovered from the flu. (B) He won’t be able to go to the play. (C) He heard that the play isn’t very good. (D) He has already seen the play. 2. (A) Share the place he’s renting. (B) Avoid living near the campus. (C) Apply for campus housing. (D) Find an apartment soon. 3. (A) He wants to meet the woman after his Spanish class. (B) The woman should borrow someone else’s workbook. (C) He can take the woman to her class. (D) The woman needs to return the workbook before the class. 4. (A) She didn’t know Dr. Turner’s lecture would be so interesting. (B) She didn’t expect to have a quiz today. (C) Dr. Turner often gives quizzes. (D) The man should have prepared for the class. 5. (A) There are different kinds of folders. (B) This decision requires careful thought. (C) It doesn’t matter which color she uses. (D) The color should suggest the content. 6. (A) She prepares her students well. (B) She used to teach graduate courses. (C) She isn’t qualified to teach organic chemistry. (D) Her students rarely attend graduate school. 7. (A) He decided not to sell the piano. (B) He’s looking for a place to store the piano. (C) No one has bought the piano. (D) He hasn’t been able to find an inexpensive piano yet. 8. (A) Tennis players often injure their backs. (B) She hadn’t heard about the man’s problem. (C) The man should have seen the doctor. (D) She’ll check the man’s schedule as soon as possible. 9. (A) He already knew about the problem. (B) Someone has started fixing the washing machine. (C) No one complained about the washing machine today. (D) There’s nothing wrong with the washing machine. 10. (A) It won’t take long to get to the station. (B) It’ll be easy for him to give the woman a ride to the station. (C) He’ll ride on the train with the woman. (D) He’s picking someone up from the station. 11. (A) I’ll out an application from. (B) Apply for a different position. (C) File the papers in the cabinet. (D) Show her the advertisement from the newspaper. 12. (A) Go with her to the airport. (B) Talk to her for a short time. (C) Find out when the plane is leaving. (D) Make the phone call now. 13. (A) He can give the woman directions to Chicago. (B) He can drive the woman to Chicago. (C) He can get a map for the woman. (D) He can take the woman to the bookstore. 14. (A) He didn’t show his paintings at the exhibit. (B) He didn’t see the paintings. (C) He doesn’t understand Ted’s art. (D) The exhibit was canceled. 15. (A) She has canceled her trip to lowa. (B) The snowstorm is getting weaker. (C) The man’s information isn’t accurate. (D) They also may get a lot of snow. 16. (A) She needs more time to get ready for the dinner. (B) She thought the dinner was at another time. (C) She forgot about the plans she made for dinner. (D) She won’t be able to go to dinner. 17. (A) Take the class this semester. (B) Get permission to take the class. (C) Take the class over again. (D) Register for the class next semester. 18. (A) He doesn’t like his new eyeglass frames. (B) He didn’t get a haircut. (C) He got his eyeglasses a long time ago. (D) Several people have asked him about his new eyeglass frames. 19. (A) The grades have been calculated correctly. (B) The woman will get the grade she deserves. (C) The woman received one of the highest grades. (D) The woman’s grade can’t be changed. 20. (A) She left the lecture for a few minutes. (B) She was reading doing the lecture. (C) She may have fallen asleep. (D) She misunderstood the speaker’s last points. 21. (A) The man hasn’t seen Joan recently. (B) The man plans to call Joan soon. (C) Joan doesn’t know what happened to the book. (D) Joan gave the book to the man. 22. (A) Why she should tell her students about her plans. (B) What he plans to do when he’s on sabbatical. (C) Why she can’t take a sabbatical next semester. (D) Why her students probably weren’t surprised by her announcement. 23. (A) Put a little more pepper in the stew. (B) Taste the stew to see if it needs paper. (C) Check the recipe to see if they followed it correctly. (D) Serve the stew as it is. 24. (A) She wants to know where Tom heard the stories. (B) She’s surprised Tom was so serious last night. (C) Tom doesn’t usually tell funny stories. (D) The stories probably weren’t true. 25. (A) He plans to sell the books to a collector. (B) He won’t sell the books until he has read them. (C) The books probably aren’t worth a lot of money. (D) The woman can borrow any of the books if she wants to. 26. (A) Leave with the man. (B) Get ready to leave for the weekend. (C) Stay where she is for the weekend. (D) Meet the man later. 27. (A) The man is upset that the wasn’t invited to the party. (B) The man and the woman live in different buildings. (C) The woman’s friends were louder than she expected they would be. (D) The woman hadn’t intended to serve food and beverages at the party. 28. (A) Mary hadn’t planned to attend the seminar. (B) Mary has been ill for several weeks. (C) Mary forgot about the seminar. (D) Mary wasn’t able to attend the seminar. 29. (A) Do more research before they meet. (B) Meet several days before the presentation. (C) Change the day of the presentation. (D) Try to solve the problems before they meet. 30. (A) She’ll talk to Judy about the problem. (B) She may not be available later to help the man. (C) She isn’t sure if Judy can solve the problem. (D) The man will be able to solve the problem himself. 31. (A) Places the man has visited. (B) A paper the woman is writing for a class. (C) School activities they enjoy. (D) The woman’s plans for the summer. 32. (A) She has never been to Gettysburg. (B) She took a political science course. (C) Her family still goes on vacation together. (D) She’s interested in the United States Civil War. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org 33. (A) Why her parents wanted to go to Gettysburg. (B) Why her family’s vacation plans changed ten years ago. (C) Where her family went for a vacation ten years ago. (D) When her family went on their last vacation. 34. (A) It’s far from where she lives. (B) Her family went there without her. (C) She doesn’t know a lot about it. (D) She’s excited about going there. 35. (A) A catalog mailed to the man. (B) The woman’s catalog order. (C) The history of mail-order catalogs. (D) A comparison of two kinds of catalogs. 36. (A) She wants to learn about Richard Sears. (B) She is helping the man with his assignment. (C) She needs to buy a filing cabinet. (D) She wants to order some textbooks. 37. (A) Teachers. (B) Farmers. (C) Students. (D) Laborers. 38. (A) As textbooks. (B) As fuel. (C) As newspapers. (D) As art. 39. (A) Taxes on factory goods rose. (B) Some people lost their farms. (C) Shipping prices rose. (D) some families lost their businesses. 40. (A) Problems with pesticides. (B) Characteristics of one type of falcon. (C) Migratory patterns of birds. (D) Tracking systems for animals. 41. (A) It flying speed. (B) Its keen hearing. (C) It size. (D) Its aggressiveness. 42. (A) By radar. (B) By airplane. (C) By direct observation. (D) By satellite. 43. (A) The types of instruments used in bebop music. (B) The social setting in which bebop music developed. (C) How two styles of jazz music influenced each other (D) The influence of bebop music on the United States economy during the 1940’s. 44. (A) They didn’t use singers. (B) They gave free concerts. (C) They performed in small nightclubs. (D) They shortened the length of their performances. 45. (A) To discuss one way it impacted jazz music. (B) To explain why the government reduced some taxes. (C) To describe a common theme in jazz music. (D) To discuss the popularity of certain jazz bands. 46. (A) The music contained strong political messages. (B) The music had a steady beat that people could dance to. (C) The music included sad melodies. (D) The music contained irregular types of rhythms. 47. (A) The increase in beachfront property value. (B) An experimental engineering project. (C) The erosion of coastal areas (D) How to build seawalls. 48. (A) To protect beachfront property. (B) To reduce the traffic on beach roads. (C) To provide privacy for homeowners. (D) To define property limits. 49. (A) By sending water directly back to sea with great force. (B) By reducing wave energy. (C) By reducing beach width. (D) By stabilizing beachfront construction. 50. (A) Protect roads along the shore. (B) Build on beaches with seawalls. (C) Add sand to beaches with seawalls. (D) Stop building seawalls. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org Section Two: Structure and Written Expression 1. The giant ragweed, or buffalo weed, grows ---. (A) 18 feet up to high (B) to high 18 feet up (C) up to 18 feet high (D) 18 feet high up to 2. Neptune is --- any planet except Pluto. (A) to be far from the Sun (B) far from the Sun being (C) farther than the Sun is (D) farther from the Sun than 3. Since prehistoric times, artists have arranged paint on surfaces in ways --- their ideas about people and the world. (A) express (B) that their expression of (C) which, expressing (D) that express 4. Except for certain microorganisms, --- need oxygen to survive. (A) of all living things (B) all living things (C) all are living things (D) are all living things 5. Dubbing is used in filmmaking --- a new sound track to a motion picture. (A) which to add (B) to add (C) is adding that (D) to add while 6. --- of green lumber may come from moisture in the wood. (A) More weight than half (B) Of the weight, more than half (C) The weight is more than half (D) More than half of the weight 7. Archaeologists study ---- to trace ancient trade routes because such tools are relatively rare, and each occurrence has a slightly different chemical composition. (A) which obsidian tools (B) obsidian tools (C) how obsidian tools (D) obsidian tools are 8. ---- the hamster’s basic diet is vegetarian, some hamsters also eat insects. (A) Despite (B) Although (C) Regardless of (D) Consequently 9. The Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States --- for their sand painting, also called dry painting. (A) noted (B) are noted (C) to be noted (D) have noted 10. In 1784, the leaders of what would later become the state of Virginia gave up --- to the territory that later became five different Midwestern states. (A) any claim (B) when the claim (C) to claim (D) would claim 11. ---- one after another, parallel computers perform groups of operations at the same time. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (A) Conventional computers, by handling tasks (B) Since tasks being handled by conventional computers (C) Whereas conventional computers handle tasks (D) While tasks handled by conventional computers 12. The Liberty Bell, formerly housed in Independence Hall, --- in Philadelphia, was moved to a separate glass pavilion in 1976. (A) which a historic building (B) a historic building which (C) was a historic building (D) a historic building 13. Fossils, traces of dead organisms found in the rocks of Earth’s crust, reveal --- at the time the rocks were formed. (A) what was like (B) was like life (C) what life was like (D) life was like 14. Although the huge ice masses ---- glaciers move slowly, they are a powerful erosive force in nature. (A) call them (B) are called (C) to call (D) called 15. The soybean contains vitamins, essential minerals, --- high percentage of protein. (A) a (B) and a (C) since a (D) of which a 16. A gene is a biological unit of information who directs the activity of a cell or organism during its A B C D lifetime. 17. The flowering of African American talent in literature, music, and art in the 1920’s in New York City A B C became to know as the Harlem Renaissance. D 18. The symptoms of pneumonia, a lung infection, include high fever, chest pain, breathing difficult, and A B C D coughing. 19. The rapid grow of Boston during the mid-nineteenth century coincided with a large influx of A B C European immigrants. D 20. In 1908 Olive Campbell started writing down folk songs by rural people in the southern Appalachian A B C mountains near hers home. D 21.The thirteen stripes of the United States flag represent the original thirteen states of the Union, which A B C they all were once colonies of Britain. D 22. In 1860, more as 90 percent of the people of Indiana lived rural areas, with only a few cities having a A B C population exceeding 10,000. D 23.Gravitation keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth and the planets other of the solar system in orbit A B C D around the Sun. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org 24. Photograph was revolutionized in 1831 by the introduction of the collodion process for making glass A B C D negatives. 25. After flax is washed, dry, beaten, and combed, fibers are obtained for use in making fabric. A B C D 26. A fever is caused which blood cells release proteins called pyrogens, raising the body’s temperature. A B C D 27. Because of various gift-giving holidays, most stores clothing in the United Sates do almost as much A B business in November and December as they do in the other ten months combined. C D 28.The United States National Labor Relations Board is authorized to investigation allegations of unfair A B labor practices on the part of either employers or employees. C D 29.The Great Potato Famine in Ireland in the 1840’s caused an unprecedented numbers of people from A B C Ireland to immigrate to the United States. D 30.The particles comprising a given cloud are continually changing, as new ones are added while others A B are taking away by moving air. C D 31.Political parties in the United States help to coordinate the campaigns of their members and organizes A B C the statewide and national conventions that mark election years. D 32.The lemur is an unusual animal belonging to the same order than monkey’s and apes. A B C D 33.Chese may be hard or soft, depending on the amount of water left into it and the character of A B C D the cuting. 34.The carbon-are lamp, a very bright electric lamp used for spotlights, consists of two carbon A B electrodes with a high-current are passing between it. C D 35. At first the poems of E.E. Cummings gained notoriety to their idiosyncratic punctuation and A B typography, but they have gradually been recognized for their lyric power as well. C D 36.The mechanism of human thought and recall, a subject only partly understood by scientists, is A B C extraordinary complicated. D 37.While the process of photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used A B to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and organic compounds. C D 38.The globe artichoke was known as a delicacy at least 2,500 years ago, and records of its A B C cultivation date from fifteenth century. D 39. Humans do not constitute the only species endowed with intelligence: the higher animals also A B C have considerably problem-solving abilities. D 40. Many of species of milkweed are among the most dangerous of poisonous plants, while others A B C For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org have little, if any, toxicity. D Questions 1-10 In the early 1800’s, over 80 percent of the United States labor force was engaged in agriculture. Sophisticated technology and machinery were virtually nonexistent. People who lived in the cities and were not directly involved in trade often participated Line in small cottage industries making handcrafted goods. Others cured meats, silversmiths, candle 5) or otherwise produced needed goods and commodities. Blacksmiths, silversmiths, candle makers, and other artisans worked in their homes or barns, relying on help of family Perhaps no single phenomenon brought more widespread and lasting change to the United States society than the rise of industrialization. Industrial growth hinged on several 10ꎩ economic factors. First, industry requires an abundance of natural resources, especially coal, iron ore, water, petroleum, and timber-all readily available on the North American continent. Second, factories demand a large labor supply. Between the 1870’s and the First World War (1914-1918), approximately 23 million immigrants streamed to the United States, settled in cities, and went to work in factories and mines. They also helped 15ꎩbuild the vast network of canals and railroads that crisscrossed the continent and linked important trade centers essential to industrial growth. Factories also offered a reprieve from the backbreaking work and financial unpredictability associated with farming. Many adults, poor and disillusioned with farm life, were lured to the cities by promises of steady employment, regular paychecks, 20) increased access to goods and services, and expanded social opportunities. Others were pushed there when new technologies made their labor cheap or expendable; inventions such as steel plows and mechanized harvesters allowed one farmhand to perform work that previously had required several, thus making farming capital-intensive rather than labor-intensive. 25ꎩ The United States economy underwent a massive transition and the nature of work was permanently altered. Whereas cottage industries relied on a few highly skilled craft workers who slowly and carefully converted raw materials into finished products from start to finish, factories relied on specialization. While factory work was less creative and more monotonous, it was also more efficient and allowed mass production of goods at less expense. 1.What aspect of life in the United States does the passage mainly discuss? (A) The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy (B) The inventions that transformed life in the nineteenth century (C) The problems associated with the earliest factories (D) The difficulty of farm life in the nineteenth century 2. Blacksmiths, silversmiths, and candle makers are mentioned in lines 5-6 as examples of artisans who (A) maintained their businesses at home (B) were eventually able to use sophisticated technology (C) produced unusual goods and commodities (D) would employ only family members 3. The phrase “hinged on” in line 9 is closest in meaning to (A) recovered from (B) depended on (C) started on (D) contributed to 4. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a reason for the industrial growth that occurred in the United States before 1914? (A)The availability of natural resources found only in the United States (B) The decrease in number of farms resulting from technological advances (C) The replacement of canals and railroads by other forms of transportation (D) The availability of a large immigrant work force 5. The word “lured” in line 19 is closest in meaning to (A) attracted (B) assigned (C) restricted (D) attached 6. The word “Others” in line 20 refers to other (A) adults (B) promises (C) goods and services (D) social opportunities 7.The word “expendable” in line 21 is closest in meaning to (A) nonproductive (B) unacceptable (C) nonessential (D) unprofitable 8. It can be inferred from the passage that industrialization affected farming in that industrialization (A) increased the price of farm products (B) limited the need for new farm machinery (C) created new and interesting jobs on farms (D) reduced the number of people willing to do farm work 9.What does the author mean when stating that certain inventions made farming “capital-intensive rather than labor-intensive” (lines 23-24)? (A) Workers had to be trained to operate the new machines. (B) Mechanized farming required more capital and fewer laborers. (C) The new inventions were not helpful for all farming activities. (D) Human labor could still accomplish as much work as the first machines. 10. According to the passage, factory workers differed from craft workers in that factory workers (A) were required to be more creative (B) worked extensively with raw materials (C) changed jobs frequently (D) specialized in one aspect of the finished product only Question 11-20 Molting is one of the most involved processes of a bird’s annual life cycle. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org Notwithstanding preening and constant care, the marvelously intricate structure of a bird’s Feather inevitably wears out. All adult birds molt their feathers at least once a year, and Line upon close observation, one can recognize the frayed, ragged appearance of feathers that 5) are nearing the end of their useful life. Two distinct processes are involved in molting. The first step is when the old, worn feather is dropped, or shed. The second is when a new feather grows in its place. When each feather has been shed and replaced, then the molt can be said to be complete. This, however, is an abstraction that often does not happen: incomplete, overlapping, and arrested molts are quite common. 10) Molt requires that a bird find and process enough protein to rebuild approximately one-third of its body weight. It is not surprising that a bird in heavy molt often seems listless and unwell. But far from being random, molt is controlled by strong evolutionary forces that have established an optimal time and duration. Generally, molt occurs at the time of least stress on the bird. Many songbirds, for instance, molt in late summer, when 15) the hard work of breeding is done but the weather is still warm and food still plentiful. This is why the woods in late summer often seem so quiet, when compared with the Exuberant choruses of spring. Molt of the flight feathers is the most highly organized part of the process. Some species, for example, begin by dropping the outermost primary feathers on each side (to retain 20) balance in the air) and wait until the replacement feathers are about one-third grown before shedding the next outermost, and so on. Others always start with the innermost primary feathers and work outward. Yet other species begin in the middle and work outward on both weeks while the replacement feathers grow. 11.The passage mainly discusses how (A) birds prepare for breeding (B) bird feathers differ from species (C) birds shed and replace their feathers (D) birds are affected by seasonal changes 12.The word “Notwithstanding” in line 2 is closest in meaning to (A) despite (B) because of (C) instead of (D) regarding 13.The word “intricate” in line 2 is closest in meaning to (A) regular (B) complex (C) interesting (D) important 14.The word “random” in line 12 is closest in meaning to (A) unfortunate (B) unusual (C) unobservable (D) unpredictable 15.The word “optimal” in line 13 is closest in meaning to (A) slow (B) frequent (C) best (D) early 16.Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a reason that songbirds molt in the late summer? For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (A) Fewer predators are in the woods. (B) The weathers is still warm. (C) The songbirds have finished breeding. (D) Food is still available. 17. Some birds that are molting maintain balance during flight by (A) constantly preening and caring for their remaining feathers (B) dropping flight feathers on both sides at the same time (C) adjusting the angle of their flight to compensate for lost feathers (D) only losing one-third of their feathers 18.The word “Others” in line 21 refers to (A) ducks (B) sides (C) species (D) flight feathers 19.The author discusses ducks in order to provide an example of birds that (A) grow replacement feathers that are very long (B) shed all their wing feathers at one time (C) keep their innermost feathers (D) shed their outermost feathers first 20. It can inferred from the discussion about ducks that the molting of their flight feathers takes. (A) a year (B) a season (C) several months (D) a few weeks Question 21-30 The Harlem Renaissance, a movement of the 1920’s, marked the twentieth century’s first period of intense activity by African Americans in the field of literature, art, and music in the United States. The philosophy of the movement combined realism, ethnic Line consciousness, and Americanism. Encouraged by the example of certain Americans 5) of European descent such as Thomas Eakins, Robert Henri, and George Luks, who had included persons of African descent in their paintings as serious studies rather than as trivial or sentimental stereotypes, African American artists of this period set about creating a new portrayal of themselves and their lives in the United States. As they began to strive for social and cultural independence. Their attitudes toward themselves changed, 10) and, to some extent, other segments of American society began to change their attitudes toward them. Thus, thought the Harlem Renaissance was a short-lived movement, its impact on American art and culture continues to the present. The district in New York City know as Harlem was the capital of the movement. In 1925 an issue of Survey Graphic magazine devoted exclusively to Harlem and edited 15) by philosopher Alain Locke became the manifesto of the African American artistic movement. Locke strongly suggested that individuals, while accepting their Americanism, take pride in their African ancestral arts and urged artists to look to Africa for substance and inspiration. Far from advocating a withdrawal from American culture, as did some of his contemporaries, Locke recommended a cultural pluralism through which artists could 20) enrich the culture of America. African Americans were urged by Locke to be collaborators and participators with other Americans in art, literature, and music; and at the same time to preserve, enhance, and promote their own cultural heritage. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org Artists and intellectuals from many parts of the United States and the Caribbean had Been attracted to Harlem by the pulse and beat of its unique and dynamic culture. From 25) this unity created by the convergence of artists from various social and geographical backgrounds came a new spirit, which, particularly in densely populated Harlem, was to result in greater group awareness and self-determination. African American graphic artists took their place beside the poets and writers of the Harlem Renaissance and carried on efforts to increase and promote the visual arts. 21.What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) African American paintings in the 1920’s (B) An arts movement of the 1920’s (C) The influence of Alain Locke on African American art (D) Some ways in which African culture inspired American literature, art and music 22. According to the passage, Tomas Eakins, Robert Henri, and George Luks were important because of (A) the philosophical contributions they made to the Harlem Renaissance (B) their development of a new style of African American art (C) they way in which they depicted African Americans in their paintings (D) their independence from European artistic traditions 23. The word “them” in line 11 refers to (A) Americans of European descent (B) paintings (C) African American artists (D) attitudes 24. According to the passage, African American artists of the 1920’s differed from earlier African American artists in terms of their feelings about (A) themselves (B) other artists (C) their impact on American art (D) stereotypes 25.The word “urged” in line 17 is closest in meaning to (A) prepared (B) defined (C) permitted (D) encouraged 26. Alain Locke believed all of the following to be important to the African American artistic movement EXCEPT (A) pride in African art (B) cultural pluralism (C) collaboration with other artists (D) withdrawal from American culture 27. In mentioning “the pulse and beat” (line24) of Harlem during the 1920’s, the author is characterizing the district as one that (A) depended greatly on its interaction with other parts of the city (B) grew economically in a short period of time (C) was an exciting place to be (D) was in danger of losing population 28.The word “convergence” in line 25 is closest in meaning to (A) gathering (B) promotion (C) expression (D) influence 29. According to the passage, all of the following For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org were true of Harlem in the 1920’s EXCEPT: (A) Some Caribbean artists and intellectuals lived there. (B) It attracted people from various regions of United States. (C) It was one of the most expensive neighborhoods in New York City. (D) It was a unique cultural center. 30.The phrase “carried on” in line 29 is closest in meaning to (A) continued (B) praised (C) transformed (D) connected Questions 31-40 Ethology is concerned with the study of adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its Evolutionary history. Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the 1960’s but has become even more influential today. The origins of ethology can be traced Line to the work of Darwin. Its modern foundations were laid by two European zoologists, 5) Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen. Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The most well-known of these is imprinting, the carly following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young will stay close to their mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place 10) during an early, restricted time period of development. If the mother goose is not present during this time, but an object resembling her in important features is, young goslings may imprint on it instead. Observations of imprinting led to major concept that has been applied in child Development” the critical period. It refers to a limited times span during which the child is 15) biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably stimulating environment. Many researchers have conducted studies to find out whether complex congnitive and social behaviors must be learned during restricted time periods. for example, if children are deprived of adequate food or physical and social stimulation during the early years of life, will their intelligence be permanently impaired? If language 20) is not mastered during the preschool years, is the child’s capacity to acquire it reduced? Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the British psychoanalyst John Bowlby applied ethological theory to the understanding of the relationship between an infant and its parents. He argued that attachment behaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling, grasping, and crying, are built-in social signals that encourage the parents to approach, 25) care for, and interact with the baby. By keeping a parent near, these behaviors help ensure that the baby will be fed, protected from danger, and provided with the stimulation and affection necessary for healthy growth. The development of attachment in human infants is a lengthy process involving changes in psychological structures that lead to a deep affectional tie between parent and baby. 31.What was Darwin’s contribution to ethology? (A) Darwin improved on the original principles For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org of ethology. (B) Darwin was the professor who taught Lorenz and Tinbergen. (C) Darwin’s work provided the basis for ethology. (D) Darwin was the first person to apply ethological theory to children. 32.The word “diverse” in line 6 is closest in meaning to (A) small (B) varied (C) wild (D) particular 33.The word “ensures” in line 8 is closest in meaning to (A) guarantees (B) proves (C) teaches (D) assumes 34. According to the passage, if a mother goose is not present during the time period when imprinting takes place, which of the following will most likely occur? (A) The gosling will not imprint on any object. (B) The gosling may not find a mate when it matures. (C) The mother will later imprint on the gosling. (D) The gosling may imprint on another object. 35.The word “it” in line 12 refers to (A) development (B) goose (C) time (D) object 36.The word “suitably” in line 15 is closest in meaning to (A) willingly (B) moderately (C) appropriately (D) emotionally 37.The author mentions all of the following as attachment behaviors of human infants EXCEPT (A) grasping (B) crying (C) eating (D) smiling 38.According to the passage, attachment behaviors of infants are intended to (A) get the physical, emotional and social needs of the infant met (B) allow the infant to become imprinted on objects that resemble the parent (C) provide the infant with a means of self-stimulation (D) prepare the infant to cope with separation 39.The phrase “affectional tie” in line 29 is closest in meaning to (A) cognitive development (B) emotional attachment (C) psychological need (D) behavioral change 40. It can be inferred from the passage that ethological theory assumes that (A) to learn about human behavior only human subjects should be studied (B) failure to imprint has no influence on inteligence (C) the notion of critical periods applies only to animals (D) there are similarities between animal and human behavior For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org Questions 41-50 There are only a few clues in the rock record about climate in the Proterozoic con. Much of our information about climate in the more recent periods of geologic history comes from the fossil record, because we have a reasonably good understanding of Line the types of environment in which many fossil organisms flourished. The scarce fossils 5) of the Proterozoic, mostly single-celled bacteria, provide little evidence in this regard. However, the rocks themselves do include the earliest evidence for glaciation, probably a global ice age. The inference that some types of sedimentary rocks are the result of glacial activity is based on the principle of uniformitarianism, which posits that natural processes now 10) at work on and within the Earth operated in the same manner in the distant past. The deposits associated with present-day glaciers have been well studied, and some of their characteristics are quite distinctive. In 2.3-billion-year-old rocks in Canada near Lake Huron (dating from the early part of the Proterozoic age), there are thin laminae of fine-grained sediments that resemble varves, the annual layers of sediment deposited in 15) glacial lakes. Typically, present-day varves show two-layered annual cycle, one layer corresponding to the rapid ice melting and sediment transport of the summer season, and the other, finer-grained, layer corresponding to slower winter deposition. Although it is not easy to discern such details in the Proterozoic examples, they are almost certainly glacial varves. These fine-grained, layered sediments even contain occasional large 20) pebbles or “dropstones,” a characteristic feature of glacial environments where coarse material is sometimes carried on floating ice and dropped far from its source, into otherwise very fine grained sediment. Glacial sediments of about the same age as those in Canada have been found in other parts of North America and in Africa, India, and Europe. This indicates that the glaciation was global, and that for a period of time in 25) the early Proterozoic the Earth was gripped in an ice age. Following the early Proterozoic glaciation, however, the climate appears to have Been fairly benign for a very long time. There is no evidence for glaciation for the Next 1.5 billion years or so. Then, suddenly, the rock record indicates a series of Glacial episodes between about 850 and 600 million year ago, near the end of the Proterozoic con. 41.Which of the following does the passage mainly discuss? (A) How patterns in rock layers have been used to construct theories about the climate of the Proterozoic age (B) What some rare fossils indicate about glacial conditions during the late Proterozoic age (C) The varying characteristics of Proterozoic glacial varves in different parts of the world (D) The number of glacial episodes that the Earth has experienced since the Proterozoic age 42. According to the passage, the fossil record of the Proterozoic con is (A) highly regarded because it preserves the remains of many kinds of organisms For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (B) less informative than the fossil record of more recent periods (C) very difficult to interpret due to damage from bacteria (D) more useful to researchers than other aspects of the rock record 43.The word “scarce” in line 4 is closest in meaning to (A) ancient (B) tiny (C) available (D) rare 44. It can be inferred from the passage that the principle of uniformitarianism indicates that (A) similar conditions produce similar rock formations (B) rock layers in a given region remain undisturbed over time (C) different kinds of sedimentary rocks may (D) each continent has its own distinctive pattern of sediment layers 45. The word “resemble” in line 14 is closest in meaning to (A) result from (B) penetrate (C) look like (D) replace have similar origins 46. According to the passage, the layers in varves are primarily formed by (A) fossilized bacteria (B) pieces of ancient dropstones (C) a combination of ancient and recent sediments (D) annual cycles of sediment transport and deposition 47. The phrase “the other” in line 17 refers to another (A) annual cycle (B) glacial lake (C) layer of sediment (D) season 48. According to the passage, the presence of dropstones indicates that (A) the glacial environment has been unusually server (B) the fine-grained sediment has built up very slowly (C) there has been a global ic e age (D) coarse rock material has been carried great distances For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org 49. Why does the author mention Canada, North America, Africa, India, and Europe in lines 23-24? (A) To demonstrate the global spread of dropstones (B) To explain the principles of varve formation (C) To provide evidence for the theory that there was a global ice age in the early Proterozoic eon (D) To illustrate the varied climatic changes of the Proterozoic con in different parts of the globe 50. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage? (A) fossil record (line 3) (B) laminae (line 13) (C) varves (line14) (D) glacial episodes (line 29) For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org

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