Tiếu luận môn Semantics

Table of content Part I: Introduction 1. Reasons for choosing the topic 2. Aims of the study 3. Methods of the study 4. Scope of the study Part II: Content 1. “To have” in the sense of possess 1.1. In the sense of “own” or “possess” 1.2. In the sense of “own” or “possess” 1.3. Possession mental and emotional qualities 1.4. Family relationships 1.5. Illness 1.6. Contact with other people 2. “To have” with other meaning 2.1. “To have” in the sense of receiving 2.2. Have in the sense of eat or drink 2.3. “To have” in the sense of organize 2.4. “To have “ in the sense of take part in 2.5. “To have” in the sense of enjoy, experience 2.6. “To have” in the sense of encounter 2.7. “To have” in the sense of understand/ know 2.8. “To have” in the sense of buy or take 3. “To Have” as an empty verb 4. “Have” in Imperative Part III. Conclusion 1. Conclusion 2. Learning implications 3. Teaching implications References Tiếu luận môn Semantics

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Acknowledgement I could not complete my assignment without the great help and useful advice from my teacher, my family as well as my friends. Firstly, I would like to express my great thanks to y supervisor, Assoc. Pro, PhD. Vo Dai Quang for his enthusiastic help. Secondly, I would like to express y deep thanks to all the teachers in Foreign Language Department of Vinh University for giving me helpful lectures. Furthermore, my thanks are also sent to all of my friends from class 17 Master Degree of Arts Course for their encouragement and helps. To everyone, thank you very much. Vinh, November 2010 Le Thi Huong Table of content Part I: Introduction 1. Reasons for choosing the topic 2. Aims of the study 3. Methods of the study 4. Scope of the study Part II: Content 1. “To have” in the sense of possess In the sense of “own” or “possess” In the sense of “own” or “possess” Possession mental and emotional qualities 1.4. Family relationships 1.5. Illness 1.6. Contact with other people “To have” with other meaning “To have” in the sense of receiving Have in the sense of eat or drink “To have” in the sense of organize 2.4. “To have “ in the sense of take part in 2.5. “To have” in the sense of enjoy, experience “To have” in the sense of encounter “To have” in the sense of understand/ know 2.8. “To have” in the sense of buy or take 3. “To Have” as an empty verb 4. “Have” in Imperative Part III. Conclusion 1. Conclusion 2. Learning implications 3. Teaching implications References Part I: Introduction 1. Reasons for choosing the topic Nowadays, English has become one of the most important international languages in the world. The number of people who communicate and use it as the first language has been increasing day by day. In Vietnam, everyone is aware of the role of English in their life or their jobs, so the need of learning English has been popular in all areas. To meet that need, many English teaching-learning centre are opened, the quality of training course is quite good. This is one of the good signals the Government should care about. English is used in many fields such as politics, economics especially the system of international education. But to learn English is not easy for Vietnamese learners. One verb may have a lot of different meanings depending on the context that verb has its own meaning and this causes great difficulties to learners. “To have” is a verb that the students always confuse about when (they are) asked to define its meaning in different contexts .When learning and teaching English, we find the problems of learners is approaching the verb, we take the great consideration on comparing verb between language. That interests and encourages us to choose the topic: The verb “To have” and its equivalents in Vietnamese. 2. Aims of the study - Helping Vietnamese learners understand the use of the verb “to have” when it is used as an ordinary verb and its equivalents in Vietnamese. - Helping them apply the verb “to have” in appropriate situations. - By means of teaching suggestions of the verb “to have”, we hope that our small assignment will make some contribution to help learners leave out their errors in the process of learning English. 3. Methods of the study - Analysis and presenting - Comparison and contrast method 4. Scope of the study For the reason of limited time and knowledge, the author only focuses on the verb “to have” as an ordinary verb and its equivalents in Vietnamese. Part II: Content Using the verb “to have” as an ordinary verb is quite popular and it can be used in the following meanings: 1. “To have” in the sense of possess We often use “to have” "to have" talk about these states: Possess relationships, illness, the characteristics of people and things an similar ideas. Sometimes, “to have” simply expresses the fact of being in a particular situation, especially in formal styles. In the sense of “own” or “possess” This is the basic meaning of “to have”, we can use “to have” in place of “to have got” in the present and sometimes in the past to express this sense. Ex: I have (got) a big tamp collection My uncle has (got) a big villa in the town This company has many branches all over the world In Vietnamese, we always use “có” equivalently to “to have” to express possession. Tôi có một bộ sưu tập tem rất lớn Bác tôi có một ngôi biệt thự rất to trên thành phố Công ty này có rất nhiều chi nhánh trên toàn thế giới We can summarize the relationship between “to have” in English and its equivalents in Vietnamese about possession in the following diagram: English S + have (got) + N/ NP Vietnamese S + có + N/ NP 1.2 Possession of physical characteristics This case, “to have” and” have got” are often combined with nouns like black hair, brown eyes, round face, etc. to describe appearance. They can also combine with number of thing or quality of a substance to convey this sense. Ex: Ellen has got short, straight, fair hair and blue eyes This house has fifteen windows He has rough hands because he has to do so much work The word “có” is used in this meaning to express the possession of physical characteristics in Vietnamese. Ex: - Ellen có mái tóc vàng ngắp và thăng, cô ấy còn có đôi mắt rất xanh nữa - Nhà này có 15 cửa sổ - Anh ấy có đôi bàn tay thô vì phải lao động nhiều 1.3. Possession mental and emotional qualities For this sense, “to have” and “have got” are combined with nouns like faith, patience, etc. to describe characteristics. Ex: He has such bad temper that no one dares to come close to him Miss Beauty of my class does not have beautiful face but she has long legs Linh has good manner but bad temper In Vietnamese, we use the word “có” or omit it but the meanings of the sentences do not change. Ex: - Anh ấy nóng tính đến mức chẳng ai dám đến gần - Hoa Khôi lớp tôi có khuôn mặt không xinh lám nhưng lại có đôi chân dài - Linh có bản chất tốt nhưng lại hay nóng nảy There is a little mixture between 1.2 and 1.3 what we can recognize from the outside appearance, they are physical characteristics, what brief thoughts through the actions, behaviors that are mental qualities. 1.4. Family relationships NPs (Noun phrases) following the verb “to have” in this case indicate the relationship in family of subject who is being mentioned. Ex: - Have you got any siblings? - I have a brother and a sister. And in Vietnamese: Bạn có anh chị em không? Mình có một anh trai và một chị gái The relationship between subject and object is nor difficult to recognize in the normal situations. Not like nouns, Noun Phrases denoting physical characteristics or mental, emotional qualities have just been mentioned above (inside subject itself). Here, it only shows the relationship on family’s side of subject. 1.5. Illness Here, “to have” and “have got” are combined with nouns describing pain and illness to show the state of health, the physical conditions, or suffer from pain, disability of subject. Ex: The baby has got black box And he has got a fever all day I have a headache In order to convey this meaning, Vietnamese always use the folowing words: bị, (bị) mắc bệnh, (bị) mắc chứng... Ex: Anh ta bị mắc bệnh tiểu đường từ nhỏ, chạy chữa khắp nưi mà vẫn chưa thuyên giảm Chồng tôi bị bệnh đau lưng, trái gió trở trời là không tài nào nhủ được Nó mới đi khám bệnh về, bác sĩ nói nó bị suy giảm trí nhớ. According to he above analysis, we can sumarize the strurure in two languages: English S + have (got) + Ns/NPs Vietnamese S+ bị + Ns/NPs (bị) mắc chứng (bị) mắc bệnh 1.6. Contact with other people Ex: I have a good doctor In this case, “have” should not be translated into “có” as the folowing sentence: tôi có một bác sĩ tốt cho chị đây. This sentence can be considered unclear in Vietnamese. The example can be understoosd as “I have a good doctor whom I can introduce to you” and it can be translated “tôi (có) quen (biết) một bác sĩ giỏi, để tôi giới thiệu cho chị nhé! 2. “To have” with other meanings “To have” in the sense of receiving Ex: I’ve just had a letter from my husband She has got so many flowers on Vietnamese Teachers’ day Today, Tom has had three letters from that company. To convey this sense, Vietnamese uses: nhận, nhận được, được nhận, tiếp nhận... Tôi vừa nhận được thư chồng Cô ấy được nhận rất nhiều hoa ngày Nhà giáo Việt Nam Hôm nay, Tom nhận 3 lá thư từ công ty ấy Have in the sense of eat or drink In the sense of eating, have may be combined with the words concerning the meals and the dishes which have become popular in English such as have breakfast, have lunch, have dinner... Ex: Did you have breakfast? What do you have for lunch? We’ll have stewed beef for dinner. In Vietnamese, we say: mày ăn sáng chưa? Trưa nay chúng ta ăn gì? Tôi nay chúng ta ăn bò hầm nhé. Beside “ăn”, Vietnamese can use other words in different contexts such as: ă uống, ăn nhậu, chè chén... Họ đang ăn uống ngoài sân thì mưa rào ập tới Maays gã thanh niên trong xóm tôi rất thích ăn nhậu ở quán này Sau ca sáng, mấy chú phòng tôi lại rủ nhau chè chén In Vietnamese, “to have” can eloquate with drink: He had some water, then went to work Anh ấy uống chút nước rồi đi làm Lúc nào rảnh, chị ghé nhà em chơi uống trà nhé “To have” in the sense of organize Ex: They are having a class discussion about using paper tomorrow. Will you come? Let’s have a picnic this weekend. The weather is so nice! In Vietnamese, this shade of meaning is only suitable to organizing something which is relevant to entertainment but not something great such as a party, a picnic, a discussion, a meeting...In this situation, “to have” can be translated into Vietnamese: “tổ chức”. - Mai bọn họ sẽ tổ chức hộ thảo lớp về việc sử dụng giấy đó, bạn có tới không? - Cuối tuần này chúng ta đi pinic nhé, thời tiết rất đẹp. “To have “ in the sense of take part in - They are having a conference in the hall, don’t make any noises. - Although he is a famous singer, he isn’t like one. He rarely has interview In some cases, “to have” can be understood as organizing or taking part in. Its Vietnamese equivalent translation n this circumstance is tham gia, tham dự.... - Đừng làm ồn, họ đang tham gia cuộc họp trong sảnh lớn - Mặc dù là ca sĩ nổi tiếng nhưng anh ấy không giống những người nổi tiếng. Anh ấy rất it khi tham gia các cuộc họp báo. 2.5. “To have” in the sense of enjoy, experience For this meaning, “to have” is often combined with adjectives such as good, nice, lucky, etc. It expresses what the speaker or writer experienced whether good or bad. Ex: I had a bad night because of the neighbor’s noises Did you have a good holiday? My brother and his wife had a wonderful honeymoon in Dalat last week. In Vietnamese, this shade of meaning is often used in description and we use the word “trải qua”, “thưởng thức”, “hưởng” to translate it. Tôi đã trải qua một đêm tồi tệ vì tiếng động phát ra từ nhà hàng xóm Bạn đi nghỉ vui không? (Bạn đã thưởng thức một kỳ nghỉ thú vị chứ?) Tuần trưpowcs, anh trai tôi và vợ đã thưởng thức (hưởng) một tuần trăng mật tuyệt vời 2.6. “To have” in the sense of encounter For this meaning, “to have” accomplied with troubles, difficulties, problems and it refers to bad things that the speaker do not really want. Ex: - Did you have any troubles with your customs? - I have some problems with pronouncing French To translate this meaning, we can use its Vietnamese equivalent meanings such as: gặp, gặp phải, mắc phải... Ex: - Anh có gặp rắc rối gì với khách hàng không? - Tôi mắc một và khó khăn trong việc phát âm Tiếng Pháp 2.7. “To have” in the sense of understand/ know Besides, “to have” can be translated as understanding when mentioning about people’s knowledge of certain fields or understanding of certain knowledge. Ex: - He has good knowledge of society - I have no sense of this subject; it is too difficult for me Vietnamese equivalent meanings for these words are: hiểu, hiểu biết... Ex: - Anh ấy hiểu biết tốt về xã hội - Tôi chẳng hiểu gì về mo học này, nó quá hó đối với tôi 2.8. “To have” in the sense of buy or take Ex: - Her daughter has had a villa in the centre of the town - I don’t use this computer anymore, you can have it. In Vietnamese, these examples can be translated as: - Con gái bác ấy mới mua một ngôi biệt thự ở trung tâm thành phố - Mình không dùng chiếc máy tính này nưa, bạn lấy đi 3. “To Have” as an empty verb “To have” is considered the most common empty verb of other ones in English which are used to perform an action by combining with noun in place of the other verbs. When being an empty verb, “To have” has no meaning but the whole sentence depends on following nouns, the verb will become noun without changing the letter when we add an article “a/an” before them. Ex: I have a drink after waking up everyday. You look tired, you should have some rest. She is having a bath now. “Have” as an empty verb can be arranged into the following groups: Leisure activities: Have a walk Have a swim Have a game of Have a dance Have a party Resting: Have a rest Have a snap Have a sleep Have a lie-down Have a seat Washing: Have a wash Have a shower Have a shave Have a bath Eating and drinking: Have a meal Have breakfast/ lunch/ dinner/ supper Have a drink Have a tea Have some cake Have something to eat/ drink Speech: Have a chat Have a talk Have a conversation Have an interview Incident: Have a nervous breakdown Have an accident Have an incident Have an operation Have a surgery Have an injection Others: Have a go/ try Have a feedback Have a fight Have a baby Have a difficulty 4. “Have” in Imperative One of the most common uses of “have” is in the imperative. It is often used after “Do” (or “Do not”) for emphasis or encouragement. These are some common cases of “Have” in imperative: Offers: With count noun, we use the structure: Have + a/an + count noun Ex: Have a seat () Have a cake. () With mass noun, we use the structure: Have + some + mass noun Have some tea! Have some rest, you are exhausted today. Wishes: Good wishes are often used with an adjective and they are considered fixed expressions. Ex: Have a good time! Have a good holiday! Chúc vui vẻ! Chúc kỳ nghỉ vui vẻ! In some cases, “have” can be used in a warning. Ex: Have an eye on your luggage! Have a care! III. Conclusion 1. Conclusion Above, we have discussed about the verb “to have” and its equivalents in Vietnamese in particular situations. This is a special verb that is used with high tension in language. For its uses are numerous, the students can easily making many mistakes when using it. In this assignment, I only focus on finding the possible meaning of “to have” in particular circumstance to provide students as many cases as possible to help students avoid the mistake relating to the verb “to have”. Each language has its own rules and characteristics. Especially, English and Vietnamese belong to different systems of language, so that the students can make some unavoidable mistakes in general and mistake with the verb “to have” in particular. I am hopefully that this assignment can be used as a reference to help students understand more the verb “to have” and further, reduce the mistakes of the students that are caused by lacking understanding of this verb. My assignment can have some unavoidable mistakes for my limited knowledge, if any readers see any problems with my small piece of work; I am very willing to listen to contributing ideas. 2. Learning implications Finding out students’ mistakes is a difficult thing; however, correcting them is even more difficult. Most of the students’ mistakes are cause by their mother tongue interference. So that the first and the most important thing to avoid making mistake is learners should not abuse their mother tongue in the process of learning foreign language. Secondly, the students should be aware of the verbs in general and the verb “to have” in particular. This means that the students should master all the forms of the verb “to have” and its diverse meanings so that they can translate well in different contexts. Besides, the students also should find out their mistakes as well as the reasons of the mistakes and also try to correct these mistakes by themselves. This activity helps students limit their mistakes and in further learning, they can avoid these mistakes. And the last but not least, students can not avoid any mistaking without doing any exercises. Practicing is the best way for students to learn language especially English. By continuously practicing, students can deeply understand all the aspects of language and the verb “to have”. 3. Teaching implications In order to help Vietnamese learners avoid making mistakes about the verb “to have”, the teachers should: Explain the uses and possible meanings of the verb “to have” in different contexts. Teacher should give student particular examples for each earning of the verb so that the students can understand more deeply and remember longer. Always give students exercises with various meaning of the verb “to have”. Students can learn more from the exercises. When designing syllabus, teacher should create the tasks relating to the uses and the possible meaning of the verb “to have”. References M. Raymond, (1997), English Grammar in Use, Giao Duc Publisher Vo Dai Quang (2006), Issues of Applied Linguistics, National University’s Publisher Google.com

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