Y khoa, dược - Chapter 10: Diet and health

The Workings of DNA and Genes Genetic code for making proteins Mutations: error in genetic code Nutritional Genomics Influence of diet on gene expression

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Chapter 10 Diet and HealthNutrition and Chronic DiseaseDisease: “An impairment of the normal state of a living animal”Nutrition affects risk for developing chronic disease, includingHeart diseaseDiabetesCancerNutrition and Chronic DiseaseNutrition InformaticsIntersection of information, nutrition, and technologyUS healthcare system moving to electronic recordsNutrition and Chronic DiseaseHealthy People 2020Disease prevention/health promotion objectivesIncrease the quality and years of healthy lifeEliminate health disparitiesNutrition and Chronic DiseaseObesity and chronic diseaseObesity a risk factor for coronary heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndromeWeight loss can improve health outcomesPhysical inactivity and chronic diseaseSedentary lifestyle a significant risk factorPhysically active outlive the inactivePlays a significant role in long-term weight managementGenetics and DiseaseDisease Risk FactorsGenetics, environment, nutrition, lifestyleHuman Genome ProjectInternational effort designed to help understand the genetics of diseasesSpearheaded by NIHGenetics and DiseaseThe Workings of DNA and GenesGenetic code for making proteinsMutations: error in genetic codeNutritional GenomicsInfluence of diet on gene expressionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)Leading cause of death in the United States and CanadaCardiovascular DiseaseWhat is atherosclerosis?Coronary heart diseaseCholesterol and AtherosclerosisHypercholesterolemiaLipoprotein a [Lp(a)]Inflammation and AtherosclerosisC-reactive protein (CRP)Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for AtherosclerosisHigh blood pressureHigh blood cholesterolCigarette smokingDiabetesOverweightPhysical inactivityAgeFamily historyCardiovascular DiseaseDietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing Atherosclerosis RiskBalance calories and activity to achieve or maintain healthy body weightConsume a diet rich in fruits and vegetablesChoose whole-grain, high-fiber foodsConsume fish, especially oily fish, at least twice a weekCardiovascular DiseaseFactors for Reducing Atherosclerosis RiskBalance calorie intake and physical activity to achieve or maintain a healthy body weightConsume a diet rich in fruits and vegetablesChoose whole-grain, high-fiber foodsConsume fish, especially oily fish, at least twice a weekMinimize your intake of beverages and foods that contain added sugarsCardiovascular DiseaseFactors for Reducing Atherosclerosis RiskChoose and prepare foods with little or no saltIf you consume alcohol, do so in moderationwhen you eat food that is prepared outside of the home, follow the AHA’s diet and lifestyle recommendationsHypertensionPersistent high blood pressureForce exerted by the blood on the walls of blood vesselsOften called a “silent killer”Can damage vital organsIncreases risk of heart attack, congestive heart failure, stroke, and kidney failureBlood pressure measured using a sphygmomanometerHypertensionRenin and HypertensionEnzyme renin associated with some cases of essential hypertensionStress and HypertensionCan contribute to sustained high blood pressureHypertensionRisk FactorsObesityEating too much saltLack of physical activityDrinking too much alcoholRaceAgeHeredityHypertensionDietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing HypertensionMaintain normal body weight for adultsReduce dietary sodium intake to no more than 3,800 mg of sodium chloride or 1,500 mg of sodium per dayHypertensionDietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing HypertensionLimit alcohol consumption (no more than 2 drinks/day for men or 1 drink/day for women)Consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, low-fat dairy, and foods with a reduced content of saturated and total fatCancerSecond leading cause of death in USComprises a group of more than 100 diseases that involve the uncontrolled division of body’s cellsForms a tumor that can be either benign or malignantSpread of cancer is called metastasisMost cancers named for organ or type of cell in which they originateCancerDietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing Cancer RiskRecommendations for Individual Lifestyle ChoicesMaintain a healthful weight throughout lifeAdopt a physically active lifestyleEat a healthy diet, with an emphasis on plant sourcesIf you drink alcoholic beverages, limit consumptionCancerDietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing Cancer RiskFatHigh-fat diets associated with an increase in risk of cancersVegetables and fruitsConsumption reduces cancer riskWhole grains and legumesHigher-fiber diets shown to reduce cancer risksDiabetes MellitusDisorder of carbohydrate metabolismTypes Type 1Type 2Gestational Pre-diabetesDiabetes MellitusType 1 DiabetesOccurs when body’s immune system attacks beta cells in pancreas, causing them to lose ability to make insulinType 2 DiabetesOccurs when target cells lose the ability to respond normally to insulinDiabetes MellitusGestational DiabetesHigh blood glucose levels during pregnancyPre-DiabetesHigh blood glucose levels that do not warrant a diabetic diagnosisDiabetes MellitusHypoglycemiaLow blood sugar resulting from excess insulinReactive—occurs after eating carbohydrate-rich foodFasting—occurs when body produces too much insulin even when no food is eatenDiabetes MellitusDietary and Lifestyle Factors for Reducing Diabetes RiskObesityManagementDietPhysical activityMedicationsNutritionMetabolic SyndromeCluster of at least three of the following risk factors:Abdominal obesityHigh fasting blood glucoseHigh serum triglyceridesLow HDL cholesterolElevated blood pressure OsteoporosisDefinition“Porous bone”Bone mass declines and bone quality deteriorates OsteoporosisReducing the riskAttain peak bone mass through the followingCalciumVitamin DVitamin AExercise

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