Y khoa, dược - Chapter 12: Life cycle: from childhood through older adulthood

Nutritional Concerns of Childhood Malnutrition and hunger Food insecure households Low food security Federal assistance programs WIC National School Lunch Breakfast and Summer Food Service Programs Summer Food Service

ppt36 trang | Chia sẻ: huyhoang44 | Lượt xem: 519 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem trước 20 trang tài liệu Y khoa, dược - Chapter 12: Life cycle: from childhood through older adulthood, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
Chapter 12 Life Cycle: From Childhood Through Older AdulthoodChildhoodEnergy and nutrient needs during childhoodEnergy and proteinTotal energy requirements gradually increasesKilocalories and grams protein per kg decrease from infancyVitamins and mineralsVariety of foods neededAssess iron intakeNeed for supplements?ChildhoodInfluences on childhood food habits and intakeUsually temporaryCaregivers have increased role in the development of child’s health and nutrition habitsKids are responsible for when and how much to eatExternal factorsTelevisionEnvironmentChildhoodNutritional Concerns of ChildhoodMalnutrition and hungerFood insecure householdsLow food securityFederal assistance programsWICNational School LunchBreakfast and Summer Food Service Programs Summer Food ServiceChildhoodNutrition Concerns of ChildhoodFood and behaviorFoods associated with hyperactivityChildhoodChildhood and Teenage Obesity16-33% of children and adolescents obeseOverweight children likely to become overweight adultsThe Path to ObesityMost commonly begins between ages 5-6 or during adolescenceChildhoodChildhood and Teenage ObesityWhat Causes Obesity?Genetic, biological, behavioral, and cultural factors80% chance for children with two obese parentsChildhoodChildhood and Teenage ObesityRisks and ComplicationsIncreased risk of heart diseaseHigh blood pressureDiabetesBreathing problemsTrouble sleepingChildhoodChildhood and Teenage ObesityManagementStart a weight-management programChange eating habitsPlan meals and make better selectionsControl portionsIncrease physical activityLimit snackingChildhoodNutrition and chronic diseaseDietary Guidelines for AmericansScreening children with family history of high lipid levelsLead toxicitySlow growthIron-deficiency anemiaDamage to brain and CNSLow-iron, calcium, and zinc intakes increase lead absorptionChildhoodVegetarianismNutrients to emphasizeCalciumIronZincVitamin B12 Vitamin DAdolescencePhysical growth and developmentAdolescent growth spurtBoys: begins between 12 and 13 yearsGain about 8 inches in height, 45 pounds in weightGirls: begins between 10 and 11 yearsGain about 6 inches in height, 35 pounds in weightChanges in body compositionChanges in emotional maturityAdolescenceAdolescents Energy and proteinHighest total calories and protein grams per dayVitamins and mineralsNutrients of concernVitamin ACalciumIronAdolescenceNutrition-Related Concerns for AdolescentsFitness and sportsProvide catalyst for learning about nutrition and improve daily habitsAcneInvestigating the connections between diets and acneHigh-glycemic-index foods, fat intake, and fatty acid compositionEating disordersBecome preoccupied with weight, appearance, and eating habitsAdolescenceAdolescent ObesityIncreased risk for Developing high blood pressureAbnormal blood glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetesBreathing problems, joint pain, and heartburnPoor self-esteemMetabolic syndromeAdolescenceTobacco, alcohol, recreational drugsPeriod of experimentationAlcohol and drug use may take priority over adequate food intakeTeens who use drugs are usually underweight and report poor appetitesStaying Young While Growing OlderAge-related changesWeight and body compositionAdd fat; lose lean body massPhysical activityReduced muscle and skeletal strengthImmunityDecline in defense mechanismsTaste and smellDecline in sensitivityGastrointestinal changesReduced acid secretion; reduced motilityNutrient Needs of the Mature AdultEnergyReduced needs Decreased activity; decreased lean body massProteinSame needs per kg body weight as younger adultsNutrient Needs of the Mature AdultCarbohydrateMore likely to be lactose intolerantFatMaintain moderate low-fat dietWaterReduced thirst responseNutrient Needs of the Mature AdultVitamins of concernVitamin DNeeded for bone health, calcium balanceReduced skin synthesis, activationHigher needsB vitaminsReduced ability to absorb vitamin B12Folate, B6, B12 may help reduce heart disease riskNutrient Needs of the Mature AdultAntioxidantsFound in fruits and vegetablesImportant to reduce oxidative stress and degenerative diseasesMay protect against damage to the brain Nutrient Needs of the Mature AdultMinerals of concernCalciumBone healthReduced ability to absorb calciumZincMarginal deficiencies likelyMay compromise immunity, wound healingIronElders may have limited intakeNutrition-Related Concerns of Mature AdultsDrug–drug and drug–nutrient interactionsCan affect use of drugs or nutrientsPossible interactions should be identified and avoidedDepressionMay reduce food intakeAlcoholism can interfere with nutrient useNutrition-Related Concerns of Mature AdultsAnorexia of agingLoss of appetite with illnessCan lead to protein-energy malnutritionArthritisMay interfere with food preparation and eatingDietary changes may improve symptomsNutrition-Related Concerns of Mature AdultsBowel and bladder regulationIncreased risk of urinary tract infectionChronic constipation more common with ageNeed for increased fluids and fiberDental healthMay interfere with eating ability or food choicesNutrition-Related Concerns of Mature AdultsVision problemsCan affect ability to shop and cookAntioxidants may reduce macular degenerationOsteoporosisCommon in elders, especially womenMaintain calcium, vitamin D, and exerciseNutrition-Related Concerns of Mature AdultsAlzheimer’s diseaseAffects ability to functionReduced taste and smellRisk for weight loss and malnutritionMeal Management for Mature AdultsManaging independentlyWise eating for one or twoFinding community resourcesServices for eldersMeals on WheelsElderly Nutrition ProgramFood Stamp Program

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • ppt9781284086362_slid_ch12_04.ppt
Tài liệu liên quan