Ẩm thực - Chapter 32: Cakes and icings

All egg-foam cakes are similar in that they contain little or no shortening and depend on the air trapped in the beaten eggs for most of leavening. Includes whole egg

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Chapter 32Cakes and Icings1Chapter Objectives1. Demonstrate the five basic cake mixing methods.2. Describe the characteristics of high-fat cakes and low-fat cakes.3. Prepare high-fat, or shortened, cakes and low-fat, or foam-type, cakes.4. Prepare the six basic types of icings.5. Assemble and ice layer cakes, small cakes, and sheet cakes.2Cakes are the richest and sweetest of all baked products studied so far.3Understanding Cake-MakingBasic Mixing MethodsHigh-fat or shortened cakesCreaming methodTwo-stage or blending methodLow-fat or foam-type cakesFoaming or sponge methodAngel food methodChiffon method4Creaming MethodCreaming or conventional methodA long time standard for all butter cakesStill used for many butter cakes5Two-Stage MethodTwo-stage or blending methodCalled two-stage method because liquids are added in two stagesDeveloped for use with modern high-ratio shortenings6Foaming or Sponge MethodAll egg-foam cakes are similar in that they contain little or no shortening and depend on the air trapped in the beaten eggs for most of leavening.Includes whole egg7Angel Food MethodSimilar to sponge methodBased on egg white foam and contain no fats8Chiffon MethodChiffon and angel food cakes are based on egg white foams.In angel food cakes a dry flour-sugar mixture is folded into the egg whites. In chiffon cakes, a batter containing flour, egg yolks, vegetable oil, and water is folded into the whites.9Prepared MixesMany contain all the ingredients except water and, sometimes, eggAlso contain emulsifiers to ensure even blendingMost mixes produce excellent volume, textures, and tenderness10Cake Formula TypesHigh-fat cakesThe creaming methodThe major disadvantage is its labor intensificationThe two-stage methodBecause flour is mixed for long time, do the following to prevent gluten from tougheningIncrease percentage of sugar Emulsified shortening, which blends through to prevent toughness11Low-fat cakesLow-fat cakes depend on the foaming action of eggs for leaveningSponge cakes have a springy texture and are tougherFlour for sponge cakes must be weak to avoid making the cake tough Cake Formula Types (cont’d)12BakingCake structure is fragile so proper baking conditions are essentialPreheat ovensMake sure shelves are levelDo not let pans touch each otherBake at correct temperaturesDo not disturb cakes until they are finished rising and partially brownedTry to use steam for creamed and two-stage battersTests for donenessShortened cakes shrink away from a bitCake is springyInserted tester comes out clean13Cooling and Removing from PansCool layer cakes and sheet cakes 15 minutes in pans; turn out while slightly warmTurn out layer cakes onto racksTo turn out sheet cakesSprinkle top with sugarSet empty sheet pans on top, bottom downInvert both pansRemove top panPeel off parchment paperCool angel food cakes upside down in pans.14Altitude AdjustmentsAn important factor for cake bakingTemperatures must be adjusted if over 2000-3000 feet above sea levelMany flour and shortening manufacturers supply high altitude information 15Altitude Adjustment (cont’d)Leavening gasses expand more when air pressure is lowerso baking soda and powder must be decreasedTougheners: flour and eggsBoth eggs and flour have to be increased to supply proteins for structureTenderizers: shortening and sugarShortening and sugar must be decreasedLiquidsAt high altitudes water boils at lower temperatures and evaporates more easily.Liquids must be increased16Altitude Adjustment (cont’d)Baking temperaturesIncrease baking temperatures by 25° F above 3500 feetPan greasingGrease pan more heavilyStoringWrap or ice cake as soon as cool to prevent drying17Icing - Production and ApplicationIcing and frosting mean the same thing - sweet coatings for cakes and other baked productsIcings have 3 main functions:Improve keeping quality of cakesContribute flavor and richnessImprove appearance18Six Types of IcingFondantFudge-type icingButtercreamFlat-type icingFoam-type icingRoyal and decorator’s icingThere are two other preparations for cakesGlazesFillings19Fondant Fondant is a sugar syrup that has crystallized into a smooth, creamy white massAlmost always purchased in ready-to-use form20ButtercreamIcings are light, smooth mixtures of fat and confectioners’ sugar. They may contain eggs.Three types:Simple buttercreamMeringue-type buttercreamFrench buttercreamThe preferred fat for buttercream is butter, especially sweet, unsalted butter, because of its flavor and melt-in-your mouth feel21Foam-Type IcingFoam-type, called boiled icings, are simply meringues made with a boiling syrup22Flat IcingAlso called water icingMade of 10x sugar, and sometimes, corn syrup, and flavoringsUsed mostly for coffee cakes, Danish pastry, and sweet rolls23Fudge-Type IcingRich cooked icingsMade like candyAre heavy and thickUsed on cupcakes, layer cakes, loaf cakes, and sheet cakes24Royal IcingsCalled decorator’s or decorating icingSimilar to flat icing but is thicker and made with egg whitesUsed almost exclusively for decorative work25Glazes Thin, glossy, transparent coatings that give shine to baked products and help prevent drying.TypesSugar syrupFruit glazes26Fillings Used between layers of cakeUsed on jelly rolls, Danishes, pastriesTypesFruit fillingCream fillingWhipped cream27Selection of IcingUse heavy frostings with heavy cakes and light frostings with light cakesUse the best-quality flavorings, and use sparingly. Don’t overpower the cake.Use color sparingly28Small CakesCupcakes are dipped in icing Petit four are tiny cakes iced by pouring fondant or flat icing over them to cover completely29Clip art images may not be saved or downloaded and are only to be used for viewing purposes.Copyright ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.30

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