Ẩm thực - Chapter 34: Pies and pastries

These can be avoided in several ways Use a mealy dough for bottom crusts Use high heat at the beginning of baking Do not fill with hot filling Do not use dark metal pie pans, which absorb heat

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Chapter 34Pies and Pastries1Chapter Objectives1. Prepare flaky pie dough and mealy pie dough.2. Prepare crumb crusts and short, or cookie, crusts.3. Assemble and bake pies. 4. Prepare the following pie fillings: fruit fillings using the cooked juice method, the cooked fruit method, and the old-fashioned method; custard or soft fillings; cream pie fillings; and chiffon fillings.5. Prepare puff pastry dough and puff dough products.6. Prepare éclair paste and éclair paste products.7. Prepare standard meringues and meringue desserts.8. Prepare fruit desserts.2Pies hold a special place in North America, because the early settlers used to make pies daily, sometimes 21 per week, one for each meal3Pie DoughsIngredientsFlour FatLiquidSalt 4Temperature Pie doughs should be kept at 60o F (15o C) during mixing and makeup because:Shortening has the best consistency when coolGluten develops more slowly at cool temperatures - a good thing5Pie Dough TypesFlaky pie doughMealy pie dough Trimmings - reworked scraps or trimmings are tougher than freshly made dough6Other Pie CrustsCrumb crustsGraham crackerVanilla or chocolate waferGingersnap crumbsUsually used for unbaked pies, such as cream pies and chiffons7Other Pie Crusts (cont’d)Short-Dough crustsA kind of cookie doughRicher than regular pie pastry, contains butter, sugar, and eggsUsed primarily for small fruit tarts8Assembly and BakingTwo groupsBaked pies - Raw pie shells are filled and bakedUnbaked pies – Baked pie shells are filled, allow to set, and served9The Soggy BottomThese can be avoided in several waysUse a mealy dough for bottom crustsUse high heat at the beginning of bakingDo not fill with hot fillingDo not use dark metal pie pans, which absorb heat10Starches for FillingsTypes:Corn starchWaxy maizeInstant starchCooking starchesSugar and strong acids reduce the thickening powder, so add sugar and strong acids ater starch has thickened11FillingsFruit FillingsCooked Juice MethodCooked Fruit MethodOld-Fashioned MethodCustard or Soft FillingsCream Pie FillingsChiffon Pies12Fruit FillingFruits for pie fillingFresh fruitFrozen fruitCanned fruitDried fruitFruits must have sufficient acid (tartness) for flavor reasons13Custard or Soft FillingCustards, pumpkin, pecan, and similar pies are made with a liquid filling containing eggsThe greatest difficulty in cooking soft pies is cooking the crust completelyStart pie on bottom rack at 425-450o F for 10 minutes then reduce heat to 325o-350o F to cook filling slowly.14Cream Pie FillingCream pie fillings are the same as puddingsThe one difference between puddings and cream pie fillings is that fillings are made with cornstarch15Chiffon PiesChiffon fillings are made by adding gelatin to a cream filling or to a thickened fruit and juice mixture and then folding in egg whites and/or whipped creamThese preparations are the same as chiffon desserts, bavarians, and some mousses and cold soufflés16Pastries, Meringues, and Fruit DessertsPuff pastry used for napoleon and turnoversChoux paste - used for éclairs and cream puffs17Puff PastryPuff pastry can rise 8x its thickness when bakedPuff pastry is a rolled-in doughIt is difficult to prepareHas up to 1000 layersButter is the preferred fat18Blitz Puff PastryBlitz puff dough is much easier and quicker to makeIt does not rise as high as puff pastryNot suitable for patty shellsBakes up crispy and flaky19Éclair pasteÉclairs and cream puffs are made from éclair paste or choux paste (from pâte à choux, which means “cabbage paste”)It is easy to make Should be used immediatelyIn principle, éclair paste is similar to popover batterBoth are leavened by steamÉclair paste must be firm enough to hold shape when pipedBake at 425-475o F for 10 minutes, then reduce to 375-425o F20Meringues Beaten egg whites with sugarUsed in North America for pie toppings and cake icing21Basic MeringuesCommon meringue - egg whites at room temperature beaten with sugarSwiss meringue - egg whites and sugar warmed over a double boiler while beatingItalian meringues - made by beating hot sugar syrup into egg whites – when flavored with vanilla, also known as boiled or icing22Fruit DessertsSimilar to pie or pie fillingSpecial favorites include cobblersFresh fruits, served plain, lightly sweetened, or with cream23Clip art images may not be saved or downloaded and are only to be used for viewing purposes.Copyright ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.24

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