Giáo dục học - Chapter 3: Structure in schools

How do members formally communicate? Informally? What formal processes drive decision making? List informal “behind the scene” practices. What are dominant sources of formal power in your school? Who has informal power in your school? Why? What are the formal hiring procedures? What is the informal practice? Who sets the formal goals? Informal goals?

ppt24 trang | Chia sẻ: huyhoang44 | Lượt xem: 405 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem trước 20 trang tài liệu Giáo dục học - Chapter 3: Structure in schools, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011.Chapter 3Structure in SchoolsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Model of BureaucracyMax Weber (1947) Division of Labor Division of labor leads to specialization and specialization promotes expertise. Impersonal Orientation Decisions based on facts, not feelings or biases. Hierarchy of Authority - Systems of superiors and subordinates Hierarchy promotes disciplined compliance and coordination. Rules and Regulations Formalization ensures stability and uniformity of behavior. Career Orientation Career orientation-promotion according to seniority, achievement, or both Efficiency Bureaucracy maximizes rational decision-making and administrative efficiencyCritique of Weber’s ModelW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011FunctionExpertiseRationalityCompliance andCoordinationContinuity and StabilityIncentiveCharacteristicDivision of LaborImpersonal OrientationHierarchy of AuthorityRules and RegulationsCareer OrientationDysfunctionBoredomLack of moraleCommunication blocksRigidity and goal displacementConflict betweenachievement and seniorityW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Functions and Dysfunctions of RulesFunctions DysfunctionsExplication Reinforce ApathyScreening Goal displacementLegitimate Punishment Create legalism Leeway IndulgencyInformal OrganizationInformal organization is the spontaneous development of a social structure and culture within a formal organization--it is a “shadow organization.”How does the informal organizations develop?Activities, interactions, and sentiments form the following:Informal structureDivision into cliquesInformal normsPersonal relationsInformal communication; the grapevineInformal leadershipW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Formal vs. Informal StructureFormal System Hierarchy Division of Labor Formalization Impersonality “Chain of command”Informal System Informal structure Division into cliques Informal norms Personal relations “Grapevine”W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Other Criticisms of Bureaucracy1. Dual Structure Is the guiding principal of bureaucracy. Authority based on expertise or based on rules and discipline?2. Feminist Critique Does bureaucracy perpetuate male values at the expense of female ones? Hierarchy, impersonality, independence, rationality, competition, centralized VS. Egalitarianism, personalism, dependence, emotionality, cooperation, decentralizedW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Dysfunctional consequences not considered.Informal organization neglected.Conflict between administration based on expertise and administration based on disciplined compliance.Feminist CritiqueSummary of CriticismsOn BureaucracyW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Brainstorming Activity How do members formally communicate? Informally? What formal processes drive decision making? List informal “behind the scene” practices. What are dominant sources of formal power in your school? Who has informal power in your school? Why? What are the formal hiring procedures? What is the informal practice? Who sets the formal goals? Informal goals?W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Centralization: Enabling and CoerciveWhat is Centralization?Centralization is the locus of control for decision making--the hierarchy.Two kinds of centralization: Hindering Structure makes it difficult for teachers to do their work; it hinders professional activity. Enabling Structure facilitates the work of teachers; it enables teachers to make professional decisions.Formalization: Enabling and CoerciveWhat is Formalization?Formalization is the formal system of rules, regulations, procedures, and policies.Two kinds of Formalization: CoerciveA rigid set of procedures that punishes and attempts to force compliance. EnablingA flexible set of best practices that enables one to deal more effectively with inevitable problems.W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Hindering Organization Hindering Hierarchy Coercive Rules &ProceduresImpose top-down communicationView problems as constraintsForce consensusSuspicious of differencesBe cautious and closedFear the unexpectedPunish mistakes Enabling Organization Enabling Hierarchy Enabling RulesUse two-way communicationView problems as opportunitiesSeek mutual solutionsSupport differencesPractice opennessEmbrace the unexpectedCorrect mistakesEnabling and Hindering StructuresW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Hall on StructureTypes of Rational Organizations -Hall(1962) Bureaucratic Pattern Hierarchy of Authority Rules for Incumbents Procedural Specifications Impersonality Professional Pattern Technical Competence SpecializationFormal Structure in SchoolsW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Types of School StructuresW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Predicted Evolutionary Changes In StructureChaotic OrganizationAuthoritarianOrganizationProfessionalOrganizationWeberianOrganizationStable EnvironmentTurbulent EnvironmentW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Discussion QuestionUse the four types of bureaucracies defined by the Hall to analyze the how to change from one structure to another. For example, how does one move a school from a Chaotic Structure to a Weberian One? Can one go directly to a Weberian Structure or does one first go to an Authoritarian Structure before a Weberian one? Which is the ideal structure for schools? Which is better a Weberian Structure or a Professional Structure? Defend your choice of the ideal? Is the ideal possible? If so, how would you lead a school toward that end?W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Five Basic Parts of StructureMintzberg on StructureTechno-StructureStrategic ApexSupport StaffMiddle LineOperating CoreW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Coordinating mechanisms are the fundamental means organizations use to monitor and control work. These mechanisms are the glue the hold the organization together. Mutual Adjustment--informal communication Direct Supervision--personal command Standardization of Work--program directions Standardization of Output--specify the product Standardization of Skills--specify trainingControl or Coordinating Mechanisms-MintzbergW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Five Combinations and Five Basic Structures (Mintzberg) Key Part Control Mechanism Organization Type Strategic Apex.Direct SupervisionSimple Structure Technostructure. Stand. of Work..Machine Bur. Operating Core.. Stand. of Skills...Professional Bur. Middle Line. Stand. Of Outputs.Divisional Form Support Staff.. Mutual AdjustmentAdhocracyW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Discussion QuestionApply Mintzberg’s Framework to Schools:What is the ideal structure for elementary schools?For secondary schools? Which coordinating mechanism(s) are most appropriate for controlling teachers? What is the most important structural part of the school? Discuss the structure that really exits compared to what should exist. Is that possibleW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Loose CouplingLoose couplings are structural connections among the elements that are tied together loosely and in some cases disconnected. E.g,. The administration of a school as little influence in what is happening in the classroom. Consider universities.Some schools are tightly coupled and others are loosely coupled.Bureaucracies tend to be tightly coupled.Professional organizations tend to be more loosely coupled.Tight coupling promotes limits discretion of teachers.Loose coupling enhances discretion of teachers.To what extent is you school loosely coupled? Analyze the tight and loose couplings in your school? Does the structure need tightening or loosening?W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Professional and Bureaucratic OrientationsProfessional Orientation Expertise Objective perspective Impersonal approach Service to clientsBureaucratic Orientation Expertise Objective perspective Impersonal approach Service to the organizationSources of Conflict between Orientations Colleague reference group • Hierarchical orientation Autonomy in decision making • Disciplined compliance Self-imposed control • Subordinated to the organizationSources of Compatibility between OrientationsTheory into Practice ApplicationsName the people who have formal authority over teachers in your school? What are their formal positions? How much authority do they have and how do they exert it? Give specific examples. Describe the division of labor and specialization in your school. Is there a narrow or broad span of control? How much autonomy do teachers have to make their own decisions? How would you characterize the formal organization of your school? Name the people who have informal authority but no formal authority? Where do they get their influence? What are the important informal norms in your school? How do the formal and informal leaders interact? Do they cooperate or compete? Give some examples. How much conflict exists between the formal and informal? Give examples of conflict. Describe the grapevine. How would you characterize the informal organizations of your school?W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Practical Imperatives Ensure that those with expertise make the important decisions: Knowledge rules.Substitute professional judgment for rules when possible: Judgment trumps rules.Initiate enabling structures: They facilitate positive school cultures.Avoid hindering structures: They frustrate professional judgment and teacher creativity.Anticipate the negative consequences of rules: Be prepared and flexible.Review and delete rules each year: The fewer the number of rules, the better.Know your informal school leaders: Informal leadership is an important complement to the formal.Balance formal demands with individual capabilities: Both are critical for success.Make the workplace interesting and challenging: Create structures that nurture creativity.Be mindful: Make mindfulness in attitude, organization, and behavior a habit of thought and action.Institutionalize structures that work: Change structures that don’t.Move from bureaucratic to professional control: Teacher judgment should eventually substitute for administrative control.Seek harmony between the formal and informal organization: Both are imperative for effective organization. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • ppthm_pp_slides_ch3_8801.ppt