Âm nhạc - Chapter 12: Jazz tenth edition

Composer, multi-instrumentalist, teacher, and conductor Leader in the musical area of closed-and-open composition Studied at Roosevelt University and Chicago Musical College Spent the mid 1960’s in Chicago with the AACM His music tends to show more measured qualities associated with more fully composed music

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Jazz Tenth Edition Chapter 12PowerPointbySharon Ann Toman, 2004Free Form, Avant-GardeFree Form is also known as: Free ImprovisationNot defined by harmonic or rhythmic forms such as what was prescribed by earlier jazz practicesThe musical material for the free improvisation comes from an ad lib (played within reason) rather than from a commonly known tune2Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeFree Form, Avant-GardeThis type of music can be compared to action or a nonrepresentational painting, such as a Jackson Pollock workFree-form jazz proves to be the fullest expression of spontaneous composition, and improvisation takes the dominant role3Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeOrnette Coleman (1930 - )SaxophonistOne of the most controversial free jazz players1st known leader of the jazz avant-gardeHe initiated a controversy of strong, opposing opinions from many of the other established jazz leaders, including Miles Davis & Charles Mingus4Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeOrnette Coleman (1930 - )1st player to move all the way into harmonic freedomApproached the harmonic freedom through improvisationHad an extensive background in blues bands5Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeCecil Taylor (1933 - ) PianistAttended the New England Conservatory of MusicHis music is a fusion of classical compositional practices and jazz improvisationsHis music can be heard as either classical or jazz6Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeCecil Taylor (1933 - ) Example: “Enter Evening” was recorded in 1966It is an example of Taylor’s free-form styleUse of oboe and bass clarinet is consistent with the third stream’s earlier use of traditionally classical instrumentsFree if harmony and meter but also free from many of the usual melodic jazz idioms7Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeCecil Taylor (1933 - ) His music requires stamina from his listeners and playersLong, uninterrupted compositions8Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeJohn Coltrane (1926 - ) Saxophonist (tenor/soprano)Played with Miles DavisProduced a large, dark, lush sound from his instrumentKnown for his long improvisations (sometimes 40 minutes in length)Had great coordination between his fingering of the saxophone and his tonguing9Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeJohn Coltrane (1926 - )Coltrane’s sense of melody is displayed in one of his most celebrated performances on a Rodgers and Hammerstein tune: Example: “My Favorite Things”Performed with his quartetShows the uses of modal and extended harmonies to a more traditional song10Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeChicago Style of Free Jazz Sun Ra (c.1915 – 1992) Pianist, composer and arrangerQuite a controversial jazz figureLauded by some as a great innovator carefully balancing composition and improvisationHe experimented with electronic instruments1st composer in Chicago to employ techniques of collective improvisation in big-band compositions11Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeChicago Style of Free JazzAssociation for the Advancement of Creative Music (AACM): is world-based modern jazz music being explored by this groupChicago based12Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeArt Ensemble of Chicago1. emphasis on collective interaction2. a wide range of tone colors3. exploration of sound structures4. suspension of fixed rhythmic support (no drummers)13Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeAnthony Braxton (1945 - ) Composer, multi-instrumentalist, teacher, and conductorLeader in the musical area of closed-and-open compositionStudied at Roosevelt University and Chicago Musical CollegeSpent the mid 1960’s in Chicago with the AACMHis music tends to show more measured qualities associated with more fully composed music14Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeContemporary Avant-Garde Greg Osby (1960 - ) Alto saxophonistAttended Howard University, and the Berklee College of MusicJoined the avant-garde school of the 1960’sAvant-garde means to stand against the status quo15Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeContemporary Avant-Garde Henry Threadgill Composer, multi-instrumentalist, and bandleaderWrote over 150 compositionsMusical roots firm in America’s Great Black Music traditionAACMApproaches music from a philosophical approach that values the change in jazz’s evolution and looks to external influences for fresh material16Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-GardeConclusion The free-form manner of expression proves to be the ultimate in improvisationThe free-form player places the importance of individuality of self-expression ahead of popularity or acceptance by the general audience17Chapter 12 - Free Form, Avant-Garde

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