Giáo dục học - Chapter 12: Communication in schools

As subordinates are involved in decision making located within their ZONE OF ACCEPTANCE, participation will be less effective. As subordinates are involved in decision making outside their ZONE OF ACCEPTANCE, participation will be more effective. As participants are involved in decision making for which they have MARGINAL EXPERTISE, their participation will be marginally effective. As subordinates are involved in decision making for which they have MARGINAL INTEREST, their participation will be marginally effective.

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Chapter 12Communication in SchoolsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Communication in SchoolsFour Caveats for Educational AdministratorsCommunication is difficult to isolate from other administrative processes.Not all school problems involve miscommunication.Communication reveals, hides, and eliminates problems.Communication is a process that evokes action but is far from the substance of good administration. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in Schools Key TermsCommunication – sharing ideas or attitudes in ways that produce a degree of understanding between two or more people.Message – the verbal or non-verbal cues or symbols that each communicator conveys.Channel – the vehicle, medium, or form in which a message travels.Sender – the person or generalized source sending a messageReceiver – the destination of the message or the individual or deciphers it.Transmission – the actual sending and receiving of messages through designated channels or media.Encoding – using cognitive structures and processes to convert the intended message into symbolic form by the sender.Decoding – using cognitive structures and processes to retranslate the message by the receiver.Feedback – the message sent in response to the initial message; information that enables corrections (Ch. 1).Communication effects – the outcomes of the message exchange process. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Sender(source, speaker, communicator)Receiver(reader, listener, communicator)EncodingDecodingMessageIn ChannelFeedbackGeneral Model of CommunicationCommunication in SchoolsOne-way communicationUnilateral - initiated by the sender and terminated by the receiverCommon examples in schoolsClassroom lectureExhortation by the principalPA announcementsAdministrative directiveAdvantagesEmphasizes the skills of the sender and encourages administrators and teachers to think through, accurately articulate, and provide clarity to their ideasImply strong linkages between communication behavior and actionW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsTwo-way communicationReciprocal – all participants in the process initiate and receive messagesCommon forms in schoolsConversationInquiryDebateInstruction (Socratic Method)W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsIndividual Communication CompetenceSending SkillsUse appropriate direct languageAvoid jargon and complex conceptsInformation must be clear and completeBuild on or reorganize receiver’s cognitive schemaMinimize noise from the physical or psychological environmentUse multiple and appropriate channels of mediaUse face-to-face communication and redundancy when communicating complex messagesW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Public Speaking: Some PrinciplesBe confident: Avoid hesitant and uncertain speech; it communicates doubt.Be direct: Get to the point without excuses. Speak quickly: A rapid pace of speech is functional. Pronounce your consonants: Pronunciation is important in conveying status, respect, and confidence.Use sophisticated speech: Refined vocabulary communicates status.Use Standard English: Slang and street language undermine respect, status, as well as the message. Speak up: Talking is an expectation of authority figures; in fact, it is a necessary condition for status.Dominate: Be aggressive in your speech; your goal should be to communicate. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsIndividual Communication CompetenceReceiving Skills (Listening Skills)AttendingEye contact, receptive body language, focusQuestioningEncouragingVerbal and non-verbal cues ParaphrasingReflecting feelingSummarizingW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsIndividual Communication CompetenceFeedback Skills- Sending and receiving skills that convey knowledge of results or effects of previous communications and behaviors.Can be verbal or non-verbalAsking questioning, describing behavior, paraphrasingInformation should be helpful to the recipientSpecific rather than generalRecent rather than oldDirected toward behavior the person could changeTimely, the more immediate the betterW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsChannels of CommunicationVerbal symbolsHuman speech – direct, face to face conversation or electronic exchanges via telephone, radio, television, video conferencingWritten media – memos, letters, faxes, electronic mail and bulletin boards, instant messaging, newspapers.Non-verbal symbolsBody language or gestures – facial expressions, posture, hand and arm movementsPhysical items or artifacts with symbolic value – office furnishings, clothing, and jewelrySpace – Territoriality and personal spaceTouching and huggingTimeIntonation, accents, pitch, intensity, rate of speechW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsSources in Communication Processes: Senders and Receivers CredibilityBelievability, identity and reputation of the senderSender’s expertness and trustworthinessTrust and confidence the receiver has in the words and actions of the sender Cognitive CapacitiesPsychological characteristics limit individual communicationCommunication skillsKnowledge of subjectPersonalityMotivation factors (attitudes, values, interests, expectations)W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsCommunicating in ContextNoise - Contextual, physical, cultural, environmental distractions that interfere with the communication processExamples in schoolsClosed organizational climatesPunishment-centered bureaucratic structuresCultural or gender differencesAuthoritarian leadershipTeacher militancyDemographic prejudiceOutdated or obscure technologyW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Information Communicators Media Context Does the language or symbols convey the information?Can it be understood by both sender and receiver?What is the content and effect of the communication?Who is speaking to whom?What roles do they occupy?What methods/media are being used?What is the context in which the communication is taking place?What factors are creating noise that might block or distort the message?Communication in SchoolsOrganizational Perspectives of Communication Communication networks - methods , vehicles, or forms a message travels in organizations.Formal ChannelsMethods sanctioned by the organizationRelated to organizational goalsInformal ChannelsGrapevinesDirectionally vertical or horizontalOne or Two-wayW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Types of roles in communication networksPerson 1Person 2Person 3Person 4Person APerson A in “Star” RoleCommunication in SchoolsW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Types of roles in communication networksPerson 1Person 2Person 3Person 4Person BPerson A in “Isolate” RoleIsolateCommunication in SchoolsW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Types of roles in communication networksPerson 1Person 2Person 3Person 4Person APerson A in “Bridge” RoleGroup IGroup IICommunication in SchoolsW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Types of roles in communication networksPerson APerson A in “Liaison” RoleGroup IGroup IICommunication in SchoolsFormal communication networksChannels of communication must be knownChannels must link every member of the organizationLines of communication must be a direct and short as possibleThe complete network of communication is typically usedEvery communication is authenticated as being from the correct person occupying the position and within his or her authority to issue the messageW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsThree characteristics of schools critical to formal communication networksCentralization The degree to which authority is not delegated but concentrated in a single source in an organizationShape The number of hierarchical levels or “tallness v. flatness” of the organizationTechnology As communication technology becomes more sophisticated, its use will dramatically alter communication in both formal and informal networksW. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsInformal communication networks Advantages of “the grapevine”Active informal networks are indicative of a school’s culture and provide vital feedback to leadersInformal channels may satisfy social or affiliation needs not met by formal channelsGrapevines fill an information void and provide outlets when formal information channels are cloggedInformal networks provide meaning for activities within the school W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsDirectional “chain of command” Five types of communication from superior to subordinate (Downward)Instructions about specific tasksRationale about why the task needs to be done and how it relates to other tasksInformation about organizational procedures and practicesFeedback about the performance levels of individualsInformation regarding the organization’s goals W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Communication in SchoolsDirectional “chain of command” Four types of communication from lower to upper levels of hierarchy (Upward)Routine operational messagesReports on problemsSuggestions for improvementInformation on how subordinates feel about each other and the job W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Practical Imperatives Use multiple communication strategies to enhance understanding: Not everyone learns the same way.Ensure that verbal and nonverbal communications are consistent: Limit communication confusion.Develop ways to verify understandings of communications: Communicating is not the same as understanding.Use the grapevine to assess potential reactions to communications: Informal communication is usually more authentic than formal communication.Encourage questions and restatements of messages to reduce ambiguity: Clarity comes from persistence and redundancy. Check for understanding: Use feedback techniques to ensure that all parties have the same understanding.W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Practical ImperativesFollow oral communications with written summaries of understanding: Clarity and redundancy avoid misunderstandings.Complement the formal communication network with the informal: Informal networks are more authentic.Use richer media (e.g. one-to-one interactions) as content becomes more complex and ambiguous: Complexity requires clarity.Clarify your communication so as to reduce noise (e. g. extraneous information): Clarity is crucial to understanding.Enhance you repertoire of communication skills and strategies: Different people and situations require a variety of communication strategies.

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