Y khoa, dược - Chapter 13: Food safety and technology: microbial threats and genetic engineering

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Analyze hazards Identify critical control points Establish preventive measures with critical limits Establish procedures to monitor control points Establish corrective actions if critical limit isn’t met Establish effective record keeping Establish procedures to verify that the system is working consistently

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Chapter 13 Food Safety and Technology: Microbial Threats and Genetic EngineeringFood SafetyHarmful substances in foodsPathogensBacteria, viruses, parasitesFoodborne illnessInfection from pathogenToxin produced by microorganismFood SafetyHarmful substances in food pathogensStaphylococcus aureusClostridium botulinumSalmonellaEscherichia coliPrions and mad cow diseaseFood SafetyHarmful substances in foodChemical contaminationPesticidesImportant role in food production Concerns: pollution of soil and waterThreatens wildlifeFood SafetyOrganic alternatives“USDA Organic” SealConcerns regarding natural fertilizerCan use approved pesticidesAnimal drugsAntibioticsDrug residuesPollutantsCan contaminate food production areasFood Safety: Harmful SubstancesNatural toxinsAflatoxinsCiguateraMethyl mercuryPoisonous mushroomsSolanineOther food contaminantsKeeping Food Safe: Food IndustryHazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)Analyze hazardsIdentify critical control pointsEstablish preventive measures with critical limitsEstablish procedures to monitor control pointsEstablish corrective actions if critical limit isn’t metEstablish effective record keepingEstablish procedures to verify that the system is working consistentlyKeeping Food Safe: ConsumerKeep hot foods hot and cold foods coldKeeping Food Safe: ConsumerCleanSeparateCookChill (refrigerate promptly)Risk for Foodborne IllnessImmune disordersCancer DiabetesLong-term steroid useLiver diseaseHemochromatosisStomach problemsFood TechnologyFood preservationPreservativesSalt, sugarAntioxidantsOther preservation techniquesSaltingFermentingDryingCanningHeating (e.g., pasteurization)IrradiationFood TechnologyBacteriophageFood additive use to protect people from bacterial infections“Bacteria eaters”Genetically Modified FoodsPlant geneticsTraditional breedingCross two plants and develop hybrids; takes timeGenetic engineeringTransform specific genesLess time needed to get desired effectsGenetically Modified FoodsBenefits of genetic engineeringEnhanced plant growthReduced pesticide and fertilizer useEnhanced nutrient compositionEnhanced crop yieldsRisksPotential for new allergensHerbicide-resistant weedsLoss of biodiversityGenetically Modified FoodsRegulationFDA oversees genetically modified foodsLabel requirements If food is significantly different

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