Đề thi toefl năm 1996

. (A) She wants some coffee before she leaves. (B) She likes coffee ice cream. (C) She will pour enough milk for three. (D) She wants her coffee with milk. 2. (A) She can certainly come to the party. (B) The party will definitely be a success. (C) She's surprised that Meg planned a party. (D) She would be glad to work on the party. 3. (A) The jogging team is outside. (B) He's running out the door. (C) He's getting tired. (D) The jogging suit is clean.

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6-5 96年 5月 TOFEL听力(Page37) A 1. (A) She wants some coffee before she leaves. (B) She likes coffee ice cream. (C) She will pour enough milk for three. (D) She wants her coffee with milk. 2. (A) She can certainly come to the party. (B) The party will definitely be a success. (C) She's surprised that Meg planned a party. (D) She would be glad to work on the party. 3. (A) The jogging team is outside. (B) He's running out the door. (C) He's getting tired. (D) The jogging suit is clean. 4. (A) He isn't sure that the meeting was called off. (B) They shouldn't ask Mrcia to meet them at the shore. (C) The woman can decide whether or not to tell Marcia. (D) The woman ought to know Marcia's telephone number. 5. (A) She thinks it's easy. (B) She can't solve it (C) She can help the man with it. (D) She hasn't tried to solve it yet. 6. (A) Order a newspaper. (B) Take a trip in the summer. (C) Put an ad in the paper. (D) Go to the interviewer's office. 7. (A) The man must be a very slow driver. (B) She did a lot of walking in Florida. (C) Most people make the trip in about a week. (D) She got to Florida long before the man did. 8. (A) Look for the umbrella in the theater. (B) Ask the ticket seller about the umbrella. (C) Buy another ticket for the show. (D) Write a check for the umbrella. 9. (A) It should be easy to read. (B) The woman can finish reading it this weekend. (C) It must be very long. (D) It is probably boring. 10. (A) He has already called Harry. (B) Harry knows most of the facts. (C) He needs to talk to Harry soon. (D) Harry doesn't have a telephone. 11. (A) Mary lost the photo album. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (B) It's difficult to take photographs indoors. (C) The photo album is in the living room. (D) Mary is a good photographer. 12. (A) The job's short hours make it impossible for her to refuse. (B) She's looking forward to meeting her new colleagues. (C) She refused the position because of the low salary. (D) The job is turning into an excellent opportunity for her. 13. (A) Take the man to the station. (B) Find out when the next bus leaves. (C) Show the man the way to the station. (D) Look after the man's things. 14. (A) He had to do what is necessary in order to learn. (B) He doesn't have to memorize all the vocabulary. (C) There is not much he can learn by memorizing. (D) He knows the whole vocabulary list already. 15. (A) He hasn't had time to try it on yet. (B) It doesn't fit him very well. (C) He needs a long - sleeved shirt. (D) He's not sure he likes the pattern. 16. (A) He's too busy to go t6o the concert. (B) The line for concert tickets is too long. (C) He hasn't been able to reach Carl. (D) Carl already knows the concert is at eight. 17. (A) Wrapping a parcel to be mailed. (B) Getting furniture ready for the moving truck. (C) Buying meat from a butcher. (D) Getting clothes ready to go to the cleaners. 18. (A) He expected to see Andrew at the airport. (B) Andrew should have known the apartment would be noisy. (C) He'd be happy to meet Andrew. (D) Andrew is glad he moved away from the airport. 19. (A) It's closed on Mondays. (B) The man doesn't like working there. (C) It's supposed to be open now. (D) The man locked it at 10,000. 20 . (A) Take a cab. (B) See the show some other night. (C) Eat dinner after the show. (D) Walk to the theater. 21. (A) The man should see an optometrist. (B) She'd like to postpone working on the proposal. (C) She wants to know why the proposal was late. (D) It won't take long to write the proposal. 22. (A) He began rehearsing it last week. (B) It is a very famous piece. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (C) He first heard it last week. (D) He found out about it in music class. 23. (A) She hasn't started working on the assignment. (B) She worked on the assignment all night. (C) She only studies at night. (D) She doesn't plan to do the assignment. 24. (A) He might go to the movies when he finishes studying. (B) He doesn't know if he can concentrate on a movie. (C) He needs to stop studying for a while. (D) He can't think about anything but studying. 25. (A) He has gone out to see Anne again. (B) He's taking a trip to another country. (C) He's thinking only about Anne. (D) He's behaving the same as always. 26. (A) They'll have to wait to get on the boat. (B) There's plenty of room in the car. (C) They were pleased to reach the head of the line. (D) It'll take 40 minutes to drive there. 27. (A) She's not a reliable source of information. (B) She's a better student than Ellen. (C) She's very outspoken. (D) She doesn't take notes in class. 28. (A) Get more people to join the club. (B) Increase the membership fee. (C) Check the figures for the last four months. (D) Spend more money on activities. 29. (A) They don't have room for more workers. (B) The workers they hired aren't tall enough. (C) They need to find a few more workers. (D) Two workers are just right to do the job. 30. (A) He's a golf instructor. (B) He'll probably win the championship. (C) He needs to practice more. (D) He spends a lot of time playing golf. 31. (A) Help with a term paper. (B) Go to a concert. (C) Take care of his cousin. (D) Arrange his cousin's interview. 32. (A) Finish his paper. (B) Go to work. (C) Cook dinner for his cousin. (D) Go to the auditorium. 33. (A) He forgot to ask about her hobbies. (B) He heard she enjoys music concerts. (C) He thinks she has enjoyed traveling. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (D) He doesn't know what she likes to do. 34. (A) She is shy around strangers. (B) She is younger than he is . (C) She is very independent. (D) She is usually late. 35. (A) To inform him about a class he missed. (B) Because he is eating fish sticks. (C) Because she tutors him. (D) To encourage him to eat a healthier lunch. 36. (A) The cells of plants and animals are damaged by slow freezing. (B) It saves time in the food production process. (C) It reduces the amount of energy required to freeze the food. (D) The food defrosts more quickly. 37. (A) A fish could survive being frozen. (B) The fish were easier to catch in the winter. (C) Food can be kept frozen indefinitely. (D) Solutions that freeze slowly form large crystals. 38. (A) The safety record of the railroad industry. (B) The reasons railroad regulations were changed. (C) The financing of railroad construction. (D) The evolution of the railroad industry. 39. (A) The use of oversized freight containers. (B) Safety problems with railroad tracks. (C) The growth of the automotive industry. (D) The high cost of meeting environmental regulations. 40. (A) It contributes less to air pollution than other kinds of transportation. (B) Its competitors are inconsiderate of customers. (C) It preserves a traditional way of doing business. (D) It creates personal fortunes for investors. 41. (A) The hiring of extra traffic patrollers. (B) The creation of government agencies. (C) The construction of new tunnels. (D) The repair of public roads. 42. (A) To discuss how microbes affect plants. (B) To introduce the main categories of microbes. (C) To demonstrate the use of a microscope. (D) To describe the structure of bacteria. 43. (A) To show how common microbes are. (B) To prove how well his gardening methods work. (C) To provide an example of an uncommon mold. (D) To diagnose why his plants are sick. 44. (A) They are difficult to see in the slide. (B) There are an unusual number of them in the sample. (C) He finds them more interesting than other microbes. (D) They are beneficial to people. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org 45. (A) A photograph of his garden. (B) Microscope slides. (C) Drawings of microbes. (D) A chart of soil components. 46. (A) The popularity and drawbacks of winter cycling. (B) Clothing for cold-weather cycling. (C) Winter mountain cycling competitions. (D) Price increases in winter cycling equipment. 47. (A) Milder weather in recent years. (B) An increase in gasoline prices. (C) Construction of bicycle paths. (D) The invention of sturdy bicycles. 48. (A) Unavailability of warm clothing. (B) Bicycle maintenance. (C) Increased illness. (D) Increased commuting time. 49. (A) A back fender. (B) A chain cover. (C) Hand brakes. (D) Thicker tires. 50. ( A) Add extra oil to their bicycle parts. (B) Wear special cycl8ng glasses. (C) Take public transportation. (D) Drive a car to their destinations. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org 96年 5月 TOFEL 语法 (Page38) B 1.Wind motion can be observed in the mesosphere by _____ the trails of meteors passing through it. (A) to watch (B) watching (C) watched (D) watch 2. Thomas Edison's first patented invention was a device_____ in Congress. (A) votes counted for (B) had been counting votes (C) for counting vote (D) be a counted vote 3. Clara Bow, a popular actress in the 1920's, retired _____ she was unable to make the transition from silent films to sound films. (A) nevertheless (B) in spite of (C) because (D) and for 4. Built in 1882, the Kinzua Viaduct in Mckean County, Pennsylvania, is open only to those visitors _____ are able to walk its 2,058 - foot length. (A) who (B) to whom (C) which they (D) that which 5. A bridge must be strong enough to support its own weight _____ the weight of the people and vehicles that use it. (A) as well (B) so well (C) as well as (D) so well as 6. The swallows of Capistrano are famous _____ to the same nests in California each spring. (A) to return (B) who returned (C) they returned (D) for returning 7. In the fourteenth century, _____ that glass coated with silver nitrate would turn yellow when fired in an oven. (A) the discovery (B) it was discovered (C) with the discovery (D) if it was discovered 8. _____ recurring fear is out of proportion to any real danger, it is called a phobia. (A) When (B) Whereas (C) Which (D) Whether For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org 9. Many modern photographers attempt to manipulate elements of photography other _____ in their photographs. (A) than light is (B) than light (C) being light (D) light 10. For any adhesive to make a really strong bond, _____ to be glued must be absolutely clean and free from moisture or grease. (A) and surfaces (B) when surfaces (C) the surfaces (D) surfaces that 11. Although still underwater, Loihi Seamount, the newest Hawaiian island, _____ closer to the surface by frequent volcanic eruptions that add layers of lava to the island. (A) brought (B) to be brought (C) being brought (D) is being brought 12. _____ unstable and explodes as a supernova is not known. (A) For a star to become (B) How a star becomes (C) A star becomes (D) That a star is becoming 13. Not until linoleum was invented in 1860 _____ hard - wearing, easy - to - clean flooring. (A) any house did have (B) did any house have (C) house had any (D) any house had 14. Hiram Revels, the first Black member of the United States Senate, served as senator from Mississippi, an office _____ he was elected in 1870. (A) which (B) to which (C) and which (D) being which 15. Oceans continually lose by evaporation much of the river water _____. (A) to constantly flow into them (B) is constantly flowing into them (C) constantly flows into them (D) constantly flowing into them 16. Because of it consists only of a relatively short strand of DNA protected by a shell of A B C protein, a virus cannot eat or reproduce by itself. D 17. The oxygen in the air we breathe has no tasted, smell, or color. A B C D 18. In 1977 Kathleen Battle was hired by the New York Metropolitan Opera, Where her A B For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org C became the star soprano. D 19. The aardvark is a mammal that burrows into the ground to catches ants and termites. A B C D 20. Because of the availability of trucks and easy access to modern highways, the locate A of farms has become relatively unimportant with respect to their distance from markets. B C D 21. The homes created by the legendary architect Frank Lloyd Wright are still viewed A B as uniquely, innovative, and valuable. C D 22. Geologists find it useful to identification fossils in a rock sample because A B C certain assemblages of species are characteristic of specific geologic time periods. D 23. Many poets enhance their work by creating a contrast among realism and symbolism A B C D in a given poem. 24. Most countries depend to few extent on cereal imports to augment their own crops. A B C D 25. The fragrant leaves of the laurel plant to sell commercially as bay leaves and are A B used for seasoning foods. C D 26. When contented, and occasionally when hunger, cats frequently make a purring sound. A B C D 27. The evolution of fishes is a history of constant adaptation to new possibilities, and a A B C refined of these adaptations. D 28. In 1991 Antonia Novello, the United States Surgeon General launched several programs A B to address particular problem that young people have. C D 29. Some psychologists believe that those who are encouraged to be independent, responsible, A B and competent in childhood are likely more than others to become motivated to achieve. C D 30. The central purpose of management is for making every action or decision help achieve A B C a carefully chosen goal. D 31. As a poetry Nikki Giovanni makes effective use of jazz and blues rhythms. A B C For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org D 32. Unlike wood, paper, and fabric, which tendency to disintegrate after being buried for A B C many years, ceramics and glassware although easily broken, survive well in the ground. D 33. Margaret Mead achieved world famous through her studies of child - rearing, A B personality, and culture. C D 34. The discovery of the antibiotic penicillin in 1928 has not produced antibiotics useful for A B C the treatment of infectious diseases until 1940. D 35. In the United State, the Cabinet consist of a group of advisers, each of whom is chosen A B C D by the President to head an executive department of the government. 36. Colleges in the newly formed United States, in recovering from the adverse effects of A B the American Revolution, inaugurated a broad curriculum in response of social demands. C D 37. Humus is formed during soil microorganisms decompose animal and plant material A B into elements usable by plants. C D 38. Ozone is an unstable faintly bluish gas that is the most chemical active form of oxygen. A B C D 39. The development of professional sports in the United States dates back to nineteenth A B C D century. 40. Long before his death, John Dewey saw his philosophy have a profound influences A B C on education and thought in the United States and elsewhere. D For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org 96年 5月 TOFEL阅读(Page39-40) C Questions 1-12 Orchids are unique in having the most highly developed of all blossoms, in which the usual male and female reproductive organs are fused in a single structure called the column. The column is designed so that a single pollination will fertilize hundreds of thousands, and in some cases millions, of seeds, so microscopic and light they are easily carried by the breeze. Surrounding the column are three sepals and three petals, sometimes easily recognizable as such, often distorted into gorgeous, weird, but always functional shapes. The most noticeable of the petals is called the labellum, or lip. It is often dramatically marked as an unmistakable landing strip to attract the specific insect the orchid has chosen as its pollinator. To lure their pollinators from afar, orchids use appropriately intriguing shapes, colors and scents. At least 50 different aromatic compounds have been analyzed in the orchid family, each blended to attract one or at most a few species of insects or birds. Some orchids even change their scents to interest different insects at different times. Once the right insect has been attracted, some orchids present all sorts of one-way obstacle courses to make sure it does not leave until pollen has been accurately placed or removed. By such ingenious adaptations to specific pollinators, orchids have avoided the hazards of rampant crossbreeding in the wild, assuring the survival of species as discrete identities. At the same time they have made themselves irresistible to collectors. 1. What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) Birds (B) Insects (C) Flowers (D) Perfume 2. The orchid is unique because of (A) the habitat in which it lives (B) the structure of its blossom (C) the variety of products that can be made from it (D) the length of its life 3. The word " fused" in line 2 is closest in meaning to (A) combined (B) hidden (C) fertilized (D) produced 4. How many orchid seeds are typically pollinated at one time? (A) 200 (B) 2,000 (C) 20,000 (D) 200,000 5. Which of the following is a kind of petal? (A) The column (B) The sepal (C) The stem (D) The labellum 6. The labellum( line 7) is most comparable to (A) a microscope (B) an obstacle course (C) an airport runway For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (D) a racetrack 7. The word "lure" in line 10 is closest in meaning to (A) attract (B) recognize (C) follow (D) help 8. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a means by which an orchid attracts insects? (A) size (B) Shape (C) Color (D) Perfume 9. The word "their" in line 13 refers to (A) orchids (B) birds (C) insects (D) species 10. Which of the following statements about orchids' scents does the passage support? (A) They are effective only when an insect is near the blossom. (B) Harmful insects are repelled by them. (C) They are difficult to tell apart. (D) They may change at different times. 11. The word "placed" in line 15 is closest in meaning to (A) estimated (B) measured (C) deposited (D) identified 12. The word "discrete" in line 18 is closest in meaning to (A) complicated (B) separate (C) inoffensive (D) functional Questions 13-22 One of the most important social developments that helped to make possible a shift in thinking about the role of public education was the effect of the baby boom of the 1950's and 1960's on the schools. In the 1920's, but especially in the Depression conditions of the 1930's, the United States experienced a declining birth rate-every thousand women aged fifteen to forty -four gave birth to about 118 live children in 1920, 89.2 in 1930, 75.8 in 1936, and 80 in 1940. With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it, young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. Birth rates rose to 102 per thousand in 1946. 106.2 in 1950 and 118 in 1955. Although economics was probably the most important determinant, it is not the only explanation for the baby boom. The increased value placed on the idea of the family also helps to explain this rise in birth rates. The baby boomers began streaming into the first grade by the mid-1940's and became a flood by 1950. The public school system suddenly found itself overtaxed. While the number of schoolchildren rose because of wartime and postwar conditions, these same conditions made the schools even less prepared to cope with the flood. The wartime economy meant that few new schools were built between 1940 and 1945. Moreover, during the war and in the boom times that followed large numbers of teachers left their profession for better - paying jobs elsewhere in the economy. For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org Therefore, in the 1950's and 1960's, the baby boom hit an antiquated and inadequate school system. Consequently, the "custodial rhetoric" of the 1930's and early 1940's no longer made sense; that is, keeping youths aged sixteen and older out of the labor market by keeping them in school could no longer be a high priority for an institution unable to find space and staff to teach younger children aged five to sixteen. With the baby boom, the focus of educators and of laymen interested in education inevitably turned toward the lower grades and back to basic academic skills and discipline. The system no longer had much interest in offering nontraditional new and extra services to older youths. 13. what dose the passage mainly discuss? (A) the teaching profession during the baby boom (B) birth rates in United States in the 1930's and 1940's (C) the impact of the baby boom on public education (D) the role of the family in the 1950's and 1960's 14 The word "it" n line 11 refuse to (A) 1995 (B) economics (C) the baby boom (D) value 15 The word "overtaxed" in the 14 is closest in meaning to (A) well prepared (B) plentifully supplied (C) heavily burdened (D) charged too much 16. The public schools of the 1950's and 1960's faced all of the following problems EXCEPT (A) a declining number of students (B) old-fashioned facilities (C) a shortage of teachers (D) an inadequate number of school buildings 17. According to the passage, why did teachers leave the teaching profession after the outbreak of the war? (A) They needed to be retrained. (B) They were dissatisfied with the curriculum. (C) Other jobs provided higher salaries. (D) Teaching positions were scarce. 18. The word "inadequate" in line 20 is closest in meaning to (A) deficient (B) expanded (C) innovative (D) specialized 19. The "custodial rhetoric" mentioned in line 21 refers to (A) raising a family (B) keeping older individuals in school (C) running an orderly household (D) maintaining discipline in the classroom 20. The word "inevitably" in line 25 is closest in meaning to (A) unwillingly (B) impartially (C) irrationally For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (D) unavoidably 21. Where in the passage does the author refer to the attitude of Americans toward raising a family in the 1950's and 1960's? (A) Lines 1-3 (B) Lines 11-12 (C) Lines 20-21 (D) Lines 24-26 22 Which of the following best characterizes the organization of the passage? (A) The second paragraph presents the effect of circumstances described in the first paragraph. (B) The second paragraph provides a fictional account to illustrate a problem presented in the first paragraph. (C) The second paragraph argues against a point made in the first paragraph. (D) The second paragraph introduces a problem not mentioned in the first paragraph. Questions 23-32 Nineteenth-century writers in the United States, whether they wrote novels, short stories, poems or plays were powerfully drawn to the railroad in its golden years. In fact, writers responded to the railroads as soon as the first were built in the 1830's. By the 1850's, the railroad was a major presence in the life of the nation. Writers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau saw the railroad both as a boon to democracy and as an object of suspicion. The railroad could be and was a despoiler of nature furthermore, in its manifestation of speed and noise, it might be a despoiler of human nature as well. By the 1850's and 1860's, there was a great distrust among writer and intellectuals of the rapid industrialization of which the railroad was a leading force. Deeply philosophical historians such as Henry Adams lamented the role that the new frenzy for business was playing in eroding traditional values. A distrust of industry and business continued among writers throughout the rest of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth. For the most part, the literature in which the railroad plays an important role belongs to popular culture rather than to the realm of serious art. One thinks of melodramas, boy's books, thrillers, romances and the like rather than novels of the first rank. In the railroads' prime years, between 1890 and 1920, there were a few individuals in the United States, most of them with solid railroading experience behind them, who made a profession of writing about railroading - works offering the ambience of stations yards and locomotive cabs. These writers who can genuinely be said to have created a genre, the "railroad novel" are now mostly forgotten, their names having faded from memory. But anyone who takes the time to consult their fertile writings will still find a treasure trove of information about the place of the railroad in the life of the United States. 23. With which of the following topics is the passage mainly concerned? (A) The role of the railroad in the economy of the United States (B) Major nineteenth - century writers (C) The conflict between expanding industry and preserving nature (D) The railroad as a subject for literature. 24. The word "it" in line 7 refers to (A) railroad (B) manifestation (C) speed (D) nature 25. In the first paragraph, the author implies that writers reactions to the development of railroads were (A) highly enthusiastic (B) both positive and negative (C) unchanging (D) disinterested For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org 26. The word "lamented" in line 10 is closest in meaning to (A) complained about (B) analyzed (C) explained (D) reflected on 27. According to the passage, the railroad played a significant role in literature in all of the following kinds of books EXCEPT (A) thrillers (B) boys' books (C) important novels (D) romances 28. The phrase "first rank" in line 16 is closest in meaning to (A) largest category (B) highest quality (C) earliest writers (D) most difficult language 29. The word "them" in line 18 refers to (A) novels (B) years (C) individuals (D) works 30. The author mentions all of the following as being true about the literature of railroads EXCEPT that (A) many of its writers had experience working on railroads (B) many of the books were set in railroad stations and yards (C) the books were well known during the railroads' prime years (D) quite a few of the books are still popular today 31. The words "faded from" in line 21 are closest in meaning to (A) grew in (B) disappeared from (C) remained in (D) developed from 32. What is the author's attitude toward the "railroad novels" and other books about railroads written between 1890 and 1920? (A) They have as much literary importance as the books written by Emerson. Thoreau and Adams. (B) They are good examples of the effects industry and business had on the literature of the United States. (C) They contributed to the weakening of traditional values. (D) They are worth reading as sources of knowledge about the impact of railroads on life in the United States Questions 33-34 By the 1820's in the United States, when steamboats were common on western waters, these boats were mostly powered by engines built in the West (Pittsburgh, Cincinnati or Louisville), and of a distinctive western design specially suited to western needs. The first steam engines in practical use in England and the United States were of low-pressure design. This was the type first developed by James Watt, then manufactured by the firm of Boulton and Watt, and long the standard industrial engine. Steam was accumulated in a large, double-acting vertical cylinder, but the steam reached only a few pounds of pressure per square inch. It was low-pressure engines of For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org this type that were first introduced into the United States by Robert Fulton. He imported such a Boulton and Watt engine from England to run the Clemont. But this type of engine was expensive and complicated, requiring many precision-fitted moving parts. The engine that became standard on western steamboats was of a different and novel design. It was the work primarily of an unsung hero of American industrial progress Oliver Evans (1755- 1819). The self-educated son of a Delaware farmer, Evans early became obsessed by the possibilities of mechanized production and steam power. As early as 1802 he was using a stationary steam engine of high-pressure design in his mill. Engines of this type were not unknown, but before Evans they were generally considered impractical and dangerous. Within a decade the high-pressure engine, the new type had become standard on western waters. Critics ignorant of western conditions often attacked it as wasteful and dangerous. But people who really knew the Ohio, the Missouri and the Mississippi insisted with good reasons, that it was the only engine for them. In shallow western rivers the weight of vessel and engine was important, a heavy engine added to the problem of navigation. The high-pressure engine was far lighter in proportion to horsepower, and with less than half as many moving parts was much easier and cheaper to repair. The main advantages of low-pressure engines were safe operation and economy of fuel consumption, neither of which meant much in the West. 33. What is the passage mainly about? (A) Steamboat engines in the western United States (B) River travel in the western United States (C) A famous United States inventor (D) The world's first practical steamboat 34. What was the Clermont (line10)? (A) A river (B) A factory (C) A boat (D) An engine 35. Who developed the kind of steam engine used on western steamboats? (A) Watt (B) Boulton (C) Fulton (D) Evans 36. The word "novel" in line 14 is closest in meaning to (A) fictional (B) intricate (C) innovative (D) powerful 37. What opinion of Evans is suggested by the use of the term "unsung hero" in line 14? (A) More people should recognize the importance of his work. (B) More of his inventions should be used today. (C) He should be credited with inventing the steam engine. (D) More should be learned about his early life. 38. What does the author imply about Evans? (A) He went to England to learn about steam power. (B) He worked for Fulton. (C) He traveled extensively in the West. (D) He taught himself about steam engines. 39. The word " stationary" in line 17 is closest in meaning to (A) single (B) fixed For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org (C) locomotive (D) modified 40. The word " they" in line 18 refers to (A) engines (B) mechanized production and steam power (C) possibilities (D) steamboats 41.What does the author imply about the western rivers? (A) It was difficult to find fuel near them. (B) They flooded frequently. (C) They were difficult to navigate (D) They were rarely used for transportation 42. The word "it " in line 23 refers to (A) decade (B) high-pressure (C) weight (D) problem 43. The word "vessel" in line 24 is closest in meaning to (A) fuel (B) crew (C) cargo (D) craft 44 . Which of the following points was made by the critics of high-pressure engines? (A) They are expensive to import (B) They are not powerful enough for western waters. (C) They are dangerous. (D) They weigh too much. Questions 45-50 Volcanic fire and glacial ice are natural enemies. Eruptions at glaciated volcanoes typically destroy ice fields as they did in 1980 when 70 percent of Mount Saint Helens ice cover was demolished. During long dormant intervals, glaciers gain the upper hand cutting deeply into volcanic cones and eventually reducing them to rubble. Only rarely do these competing forces of heat and cold operate in perfect balance to create a phenomenon such as the steam caves at Mount Rainier National Park. Located inside Rainier's two ice-filled summit craters, these caves form a labyrinth of tunnels and vaulted chambers about one and one -half miles in total length. Their creation depends on an unusual combination of factors that nature almost never brings together in one place. The cave- making recipe calls for a steady emission of volcanic gas and heat, a heavy annual snowfall at an elevation high enough to keep it from melting during the summer, and a bowl-shaped crater to hold the snow. Snow accumulating yearly in Rainier's summit craters is compacted and compressed into a dense form of ice called firm, a substance midway between ordinary ice and the denser crystalline ice that makes up glaciers. Heat rising from numerous openings (called fumaroles) along the inner crater walls melts out chambers between the rocky walls and the overlying ice pack. Circulating currents of warm air then melt additional openings in the firm ice, eventually connecting the individual chambers and, in the large of Rainier's two craters, forming a continuous passageway that extends two-thirds of the way around the crater's interior. To maintain the cave system, the elements of fire under ice must remain in equilibrium enough snow must fill the crater each year to replace that melted from below. If too much volcanic heat is discharged, the crater's ice pack will melt away entirely and the caves will vanish along with the For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org snows of yesteryear. If too little heat is produced, the ice, replenished annually by winter snowstorms will expand, pushing against the enclosing crater walls and smothering the present caverns in solid firm ice. 45.With what topic is the passage primarily concerned? (A) The importance of snowfall for Mount Rainier (B) The steam caves of Mount Rainer (C) How ice covers are destroyed (D) The eruption of Mount Saint Helens in 1980 46.The word " they" in line 2 refers to (A) fields (B) intervals (C) eruptions (D) enemies 46. According to the passage long periods of volcanic inactivity can lead to a volcanic cone's (A) strongest eruption (B) sudden growth (C) destruction (D) unpredictability 47. The second paragraph mentions all of the following as necessary clements in the creation of stream caves EXCEPT (A) a glacier (B) a crater (C) heat (D) snow 48. According to the passage, heat from Mounts Rainer's summit craters rises from. (A) crystalline ice (B) firms (C) chambers (D) fumaroles 49. In line 26, "smothering" the caverns means that they would be (A) eliminated (B) enlarged (C) prevented (D) hollowed For more material and information, please visit Tai Lieu Du Hoc at www.tailieuduhoc.org

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