Văn hoá - Nghệ thuật - Chapter 2: Jazz tenth edition

Outstanding elements of the field hollers was bending of a tone Bending of tone is an over exaggerated used of a slide or a slur In general a tone is bent (slurred) upward to a different tone or downward to another pitch

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Jazz Tenth Edition Chapter 2PowerPointbySharon Ann Toman, 2004African and European InfluencesThe basic premise of this chapter is that jazz did not develop from any one musical cultureEmphasis is placed on the fact that the rhythmic feeling of jazz came from Africabut that other aspects of jazz derive from European music2Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican and European InfluencesSeparate traditions(one white and the other black)Used both musical and cultural traditions to establish this new musical genre3Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican and European InfluencesOne tradition is predominantly literate and reflects that interest in its performance practiceAnother tradition works through an expressive language typical of the oral tradition4Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican and European InfluencesThe balance of this compositional concern and spontaneous expression was set in motion that ultimately shaped jazzJazz began with a blending of African and European musical cultures5Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesInterpretation and ContentAll musical styles and traditions have an interpretive system of presentation Some presentations cannot always be fully described in terms of the musical elements that make up a performanceJazz as a hybrid of musical traditions, reflects a blend of music interpretations as well as a blend of musical elements6Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesInterpretation and ContentWriting music down is useful as a compositional device but is not as important in a spontaneous improvisationOutside of the musical elements themselves, there is also the expressive context in which the elements are presented7Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican InfluencesMusic was a vital and demonstrative form of express in the life of AfricansMusic performed a vital role in maintaining the unity of the social group8Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican InfluencesMusic was for a whole community, and everyone participated from the youngest to the oldestMusic was used to work, play, and social and religious activities9Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican InfluencesAfrican slaves brought these traditions to the United States and nurtured them in the woe and hardship of slavery10Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican InfluencesSlaves did not intentionally invent a new music at this pointRather the new music arose unconsciously from the transplantation of the African culture and the African Americans’ struggle for survival11Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican RhythmsOne major misconception about the origins of jazz is that its rhythms came from Africa.It is only the emphasis on rhythm that can be truly designated African12Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican Rhythms“Three important points regarding Africans and rhythmic sounds”1. Religion, very important in culture of Africans, is a daily way of life2. African religions are greatly oriented toward ritual-their sincerest form of expression3. African rituals have always involved a great deal of dancing, so rhythmic sounds have always been very important to the lives of Africans13Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesCall and ResponseThe call and response pattern heard recurrently in jazz can be traced directly to African tribal traditionsIn jazz, a “call” is usually by a solo singer or solo instrumentalist and is followed by a “response” from one instrument, or an ensemble 14Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesEuropean InfluencesThe melodic feature of jazz is directly from European musicThe diatonic and chromatic scales used in jazz are the same as those used for centuries by European composers15Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesEuropean InfluencesThe harmonic sonorities are also derived from European sourcesSuch as polkas, hymns, and marchesMusical forms of Europe became standard in jazz works16Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesAfrican Americans in the Early ColoniesThe evolution of African music in the colonies depended greatly on the particular colony to which the slaves were broughtLatin-Catholic colonies – their musical life was allowedBritish Protestants – tried to convert the slaves to ChristianityResult: slaves in these colonies were required to conceal their “pagan” musical inheritance17Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesCongo SquareCongo Square was a large field in New Orleans where slaves were allowed to gather on Sunday to sing, dance, and play their drums in their traditional native mannerSignificance of Congo Square is that it gave original African music a place to be heard, and where it “could influence and be influenced by European music”Name was later changed to Beauregard Square (1893)Again changed to Louis Armstrong Park (1974)18Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesCreole MusicThe Creoles – people with Negro and French or Spanish ancestry – were not accepted by white society and joined the ranks of the African AmericansThe combinations of these musical talents resulted in an early form of jazz:Conservatory-trained Creolesspontaneous oral tradition of African Americans interchange of musical expression 19Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesCreole MusicThe Creoles contributed harmonic and formal structure to this early jazz musicThe Creole music was a blend of the oral tradition and the European musical tradition 20Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesFiled Hollers (Cries)American slaves were often not allowed to talk to one another in the fields while workingSinging was permitted while workingAmerican slaves established communication between themselves by field hollers (cries)The whites could not understand this garbled singing21Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesFiled Hollers (Cries)Outstanding elements of the field hollers was bending of a toneBending of tone is an over exaggerated used of a slide or a slurIn general a tone is bent (slurred) upward to a different tone or downward to another pitch22Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesWork SongsWorks songs were sung without instrumental accompanimentWork songs were associated with a monotonous, regularly recurring physical taskSome work songs would include grunts, groansWork songs placed emphasis on rhythm and meter23Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMinstrelsMinstrels were shows (entertainment) performed by the slaves for the white peopleSlaves would act in such away as to much the whitesThe whites enjoyed these shows so much that they would imitate the slaves by putting on the same kind of show and don black make up24Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMinstrelsBeginning of the 20th century, traveling minstrel shows were the main form of entertainment for both racesThese shows featured the top blues singers of the day such as Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, and others25Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesReligious MusicThe African American church was a central contributor of jazz expressionThe religious expressions commonly associated with the African American church grew out of a marriage of preaching and singing26Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesSpiritualsAround 1800 was the Great AwakeningSpirituals and revival hymns carried a great amount of emotion and were sung at camp meetingsSpiritual, often called “hymns with a beat” were the 1st original songs created by Protestant African American slaves on American soil27Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesSpiritualsSpirituals are an excellent example of the blend of African and European culturesSpirituals employed a call-and-response patternGreat emphasis on rhythm with hand clapping and foot stomping28Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesSpiritualsEarly African American church music can be put into three categories:1. Many of the selections were improvised (made up by the preacher and his congregation)2. Adoption of European church music and the addition of their own rhythmic concepts and variations3. African ritual music was altered so that it could be used in these services in America29Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesSpiritualsThe spiritual was:a type of folk songHelped in the development of the popular song and to vocal jazz30Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesGospelGospel music is performed in African American churchImportant that the audience actively respond to the performerThe singer improvises and embellishes the melodic line by bending, sliding, or adding tonesGospel songs and spirituals are often considered religious forms of the blues© Corbis/Bettmann.31Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMahalia Jackson and the African American ChurchJackson never performed in a jazz situationShe sang only songs that she believed served her religious feelingsInfluenced by Bessie SmithJackson learned much about the phrasing of African American folk music32Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMahalia Jackson and the African American ChurchFor many years, Jackson’s singing was not accepted in the middle-class African American churchesLater on, Jackson became one of the stirring, sought-after singers in the world33Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMarching BandsEarly African American music in the United States was predominantly vocalAfter the Civil war, African Americans were able to make or by some instrumentsBy the turn of the 20th century, the most publicized use of marching bands was for funeralsThese bands were not only found in New Orleans but also in the Southeast and as far west as Oklahoma34Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMarching BandsFuneral procession music consisted of a traditional funeral music droneAfter the burial ceremony, a couple of blocks from the cemetery the band would break out into a jazz type of march Such as: “When the Saints Go Marching In”35Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMarching BandsTypical marching band instrumentation consisted of:CornetTromboneClarinetTubaBanjoDrums36Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMarching BandsThe small size of these marching bands made the groups adaptable for various functions like:Advertising campaignsWeddingsSerenades37Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesMarching BandsA group might even perform in a horse-drawn wagonThus, the name tailgate trombone was used to describe how the trombone player sat at the end of the wagon38Chapter 2 - Jazz HeritagesConclusionImportant to jazz are the emphasis on rhythm taken from African musicHarmonies taken from European musicMelodies added by the improvisation from the American cultureAll these elements fuse to make jazz an American music rather than a music solely of the African Americans (who remain its pioneers and innovators)39Chapter 2 - Jazz Heritages

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